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Sound general and sports nutrition knowledge in athletes is essential for making appropriate dietary choices. Assessment of nutrition knowledge enables evaluation and tailoring of nutrition education. However, few well-validated tools are available to assess nutrition knowledge in athletes. The objective of the present study was to establish the validity of the Platform to Evaluate Athlete Knowledge Sports – Nutrition Questionnaire (PEAKS-NQ) for use in the United Kingdom and Irish (UK-I) athletes. To confirm content validity, twenty-three sports nutritionists (SNs) from elite, UK-I sports institutes provided feedback on the PEAKS-NQ via a modified Delphi method. After minor changes, the UK-I version of the PEAKS-NQ was administered to UK-I SN from the British Dietetic Association Sport and Exercise Nutrition Register, and elite athletes (EA) training at elite sports institutes in the UK and Ireland. Independent samples t-test and independent samples median tests were used to compare PEAKS-NQ total and subsection scores between EA and SN (to assess construct validity). Cronbach's alpha (good ≥ 0⋅7) was used to establish internal consistency. The SN achieved greater overall [SN (n 23) 92⋅3 (9⋅3) v. EA (n 154): 71⋅4 (10⋅0)%; P < 0⋅001] and individual section scores (P < 0⋅001) except Section B, Identification of Food Groups (P = 0⋅07). Largest knowledge differences between SN and EA were in Section D, Applied Sports Nutrition [SN: 88⋅5 (8⋅9) v. EA: 56⋅7 (14⋅5)%; P < 0⋅00]. Overall ES was large (2⋅1), with subsections ranging from 0⋅6 to 2⋅3. Cronbach's alpha was good (0⋅83). The PEAKS-NQ had good content and construct validity, supporting its use to assess nutrition knowledge of UK-I athletes.
Growing evidence suggests that air pollution exposure may adversely affect the brain and increase risk for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. However, little is known about the potential role of air pollution in severity and relapse following illness onset.
To examine the longitudinal association between residential air pollution exposure and mental health service use (an indicator of illness severity and relapse) among individuals with first presentations of psychotic and mood disorders.
We identified individuals aged ≥15 years who had first contact with the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust for psychotic and mood disorders in 2008–2012 (n = 13 887). High-resolution (20 × 20 m) estimates of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) levels in ambient air were linked to residential addresses. In-patient days and community mental health service (CMHS) events were recorded over 1-year and 7-year follow-up periods.
Following covariate adjustment, interquartile range increases in NO2, NOx and PM2.5 were associated with 18% (95% CI 5–34%), 18% (95% CI 5–34%) and 11% (95% CI 3–19%) increased risk for in-patient days after 1 year. Similarly, interquartile range increases in NO2, NOx, PM2.5 and PM10 were associated with 32% (95% CI 25–38%), 31% (95% CI 24–37%), 7% (95% CI 4–11%) and 9% (95% CI 5–14%) increased risk for CMHS events after 1 year. Associations persisted after 7 years.
Residential air pollution exposure is associated with increased mental health service use among people recently diagnosed with psychotic and mood disorders. Assuming causality, interventions to reduce air pollution exposure could improve mental health prognoses and reduce healthcare costs.
The Subglacial Antarctic Lakes Scientific Access (SALSA) Project accessed Mercer Subglacial Lake using environmentally clean hot-water drilling to examine interactions among ice, water, sediment, rock, microbes and carbon reservoirs within the lake water column and underlying sediments. A ~0.4 m diameter borehole was melted through 1087 m of ice and maintained over ~10 days, allowing observation of ice properties and collection of water and sediment with various tools. Over this period, SALSA collected: 60 L of lake water and 10 L of deep borehole water; microbes >0.2 μm in diameter from in situ filtration of ~100 L of lake water; 10 multicores 0.32–0.49 m long; 1.0 and 1.76 m long gravity cores; three conductivity–temperature–depth profiles of borehole and lake water; five discrete depth current meter measurements in the lake and images of ice, the lake water–ice interface and lake sediments. Temperature and conductivity data showed the hydrodynamic character of water mixing between the borehole and lake after entry. Models simulating melting of the ~6 m thick basal accreted ice layer imply that debris fall-out through the ~15 m water column to the lake sediments from borehole melting had little effect on the stratigraphy of surficial sediment cores.
Reliable and valid assessment of sports nutrition knowledge can inform athlete nutrition education to address knowledge gaps. This study aimed to test the reliability and validity of an electronically administered sports nutrition knowledge tool – Platform to Evaluate Athlete Knowledge of Sports Nutrition Questionnaire (PEAKS-NQ). A 94-item PEAKS-NQ was piloted to 149 developmental athletes (DA) in New Zealand, with a subset invited to complete the PEAKS-NQ again to assess reliability. Reliability was evaluated using sign test, intraclass correlation and Cronbach’s α. Accredited sports dietitians (ASD; n 255) completed the PEAKS-NQ to establish construct validity via known-groups methodology and provided relevance scores to determine the scale content validity index (S-CVI). Rasch analysis was conducted to identify potentially problematic items and test reliability. Score differences between DA and ASD were analysed using independent t or non-parametric tests. DA (n 88) were 17·8 (sd 1·4) years, 61·4 % female and mostly in high school (94·3 %). ASD (n 45) were 37·8 (sd 7·6) years, 82·2 % female, with >5 years of dietetic experience (59·1 %). ASD scored higher than DA in all sections and overall (91·5 (sd 3·4) v. 67·1 (sd 10·5) %) (P < 0·001). There were no differences between retests (n 18; P = 0·14). Cronbach’s α was 0·86. S-CVI indicated good content validity (0·88). Rasch analysis resulted in a fifty-item PEAKS-NQ with high item (0·91) and person (0·92) reliability. The PEAKS-NQ is reliable and valid for assessing sports nutrition knowledge which could assist practitioners effectively tailor and evaluate nutrition education.
Nutrition education programmes for athletes aim to enhance nutrition knowledge and more importantly support positive dietary change to enhance performance, health and well-being. This systematic review assessed changes in the dietary intakes of athletes in response to nutrition education programmes. A search was conducted which included studies providing quantitative dietary intake assessment of athletes of any calibre aged between 12 and 65 years in response to a nutrition education programme. Standardised differences (effect sizes) were calculated (when possible) for each dietary parameter. The search yielded 6285 papers with twenty-two studies (974 participants (71·9 % female)) eligible for inclusion. Studies described athletes competing at high school (n 3) through to college level or higher (n 19). Study designs were either single arm with an intervention-only group (twelve studies; n 241) or double arm including an intervention and control group (ten studies; n 689). No control groups received an alternative or ‘sham’ intervention. Face-to-face lectures (9/22) and individual nutrition counselling (6/22) were the most common education interventions. Non-weighed, 3-d diet records (10/22) were the most frequently utilised dietary assessment method. Although 14/22 studies (n 5 single and n 9 double) reported significant change in at least one nutrition parameter, dietary changes were inconsistent. Poor study quality and heterogeneity of methods prohibit firm conclusions regarding overall intervention success or superior types of educational modalities. Of note, carbohydrate intakes ‘post-intervention’ when assessed often failed to meet recommended guidelines (12/17 studies). Given the substantial investment made in nutrition education interventions with athletes, there is a need for well-designed and rigorous research to inform future best practice.
This study explored the concept of ‘giving up’ from the perspective of care staff working in care homes, and their everyday communication and hidden knowledge concerning what they think about this taboo topic and the context it reflects. Moving to a care home is a major transition where cumulative losses can pose risks to mental health in later life. If not recognised, this vulnerability can lead to depression which extends to suicide ideation and behaviours in the form of self-harm and self-neglect. Care homes are a significant place of care until death, yet a discourse of silence means that self-harm and suicide is under-reported or not attended to with specialist expertise. The layperson's concept of an older person ‘giving up’ on life is hardly discussed in the literature. This co-produced qualitative study used an inductive approach to explore this phenomenon through focus groups with 33 care staff across four care homes in South-East England. Findings paint a complex picture, highlighting tensions in providing the right support and creating spaces to respond to such challenging situations. ‘Giving up’ requires skilled detailed assessment to respond to risks alongside improved training and support for paid carers, to achieve a more holistic strategy which capitalises on significant relationships within a wider context.
To compare the nutrient profile of packaged supermarket food products available in Australia and New Zealand. Eligibility to carry health claims and relationship between nutrient profile score and nutritional content were also evaluated.
Nutritional composition data were collected in six major Australian and New Zealand supermarkets in 2012. Mean Food Standards Australia New Zealand Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (NPSC) scores were calculated and the proportion of products eligible to display health claims was estimated. Regression analyses quantified associations between NPSC scores and energy density, saturated fat, sugar and sodium contents.
NPSC scores were derived for 23 596 packaged food products (mean score 7·0, range −17 to 53). Scores were lower (better nutrient profile) for foods in Australia compared with New Zealand (mean 6·6 v. 7·8). Overall, 45 % of foods were eligible to carry health claims based on NPSC thresholds: 47 % in Australia and 41 % in New Zealand. However, less than one-third of dairy (32 %), meat and meat products (28 %) and bread and bakery products (27·5 %) were eligible to carry health claims. Conversely, >75 % of convenience food products were eligible to carry health claims (82·5 %). Each two-unit higher NPSC score was associated with higher energy density (78 kJ/100 g), saturated fat (0·95 g/100 g), total sugar (1·5 g/100 g) and sodium (66 mg/100 g; all P values<0·001).
Fewer than half of all packaged foods available in Australia and New Zealand in 2012 met nutritional criteria to carry health claims. The few healthy choices available in key staple food categories is a concern. Improvements in nutritional quality of foods through product reformulation have significant potential to improve population diets.
Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide, changing climates, nitrogen deposition and other aspects of anthropogenic global change are hypothesised to be changing forest productivity and biomass stocks in tropical forests and elsewhere (Clark 2004; Lewis, Malhi & Phillips 2004; Lewis et al. 2009a; Luo, 2007; Myeni et al. 1997). These hypotheses continue to be much debated, with contrary views on the plausibility of particular mechanisms and on the status of current evidence for or against them (Clark 2007; Friedlingstein et al. 2006; Holtum & Winter 2010; Körner 2009; Wright 2005, 2010). The influence of atmospheric and climate change on forest biomass is of particular interest because of the potential for positive or negative feedbacks. Increases in forest biomass and associated carbon pools would slow the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide, producing a negative feedback, whereas decreases in forest biomass would have the opposite effect. Uncertainty surrounding these feedbacks is considerable at the global scale, with important implications for global carbon budgets (Luo 2007).
In view of this, it is essential to know whether forests are experiencing changes in productivity and biomass in excess of those typical for their age. Successional forests, those regrowing after disturbances, increase in biomass over time, with the trajectory and duration of this increase varying with forest type (Bormann & Likens 1979; Odum 1969). In the absence of global change, such forests are expected to eventually reach a dynamic equilibrium in which biomass gains from growth and recruitment are balanced by biomass losses from tree death and branchfall, and these old-growth forests thus experience no directional changes in biomass (Odum 1969; Yang, Luo & Finzi 2011). Accordingly, detection of directional changes in biomass in old-growth forests is generally considered evidence of global change influences. When and where such changes are detected, the next critical question concerns prediction of future net carbon fluxes and ultimate carbon stocks of such altered forests.
Risk factors for pre-eclampsia represent a bewildering array of causative antecedents that reflect the complexity of the maternal syndrome. The HELLP syndrome is most commonly regarded as related to severe pre-eclampsia. Assessment of cerebral function via continuous communication with the awake patient is essential and provides important hemodynamic information. Transcranial Doppler measurements have given interesting insight in cerebral hemodynamics in pre-eclampsia. The choice of anti-hypertensive agent should be guided by local experience and continuous monitoring of blood pressure and flow, both for the mother and the baby. Intravascular volume depletion has been considered the norm in women with pre-eclampsia. Prevention of pre-eclampsia-related cerebral complications is one of the major indications for observation and treatment in ICU. Prevention and management of eclamptic seizures is based upon giving magnesium sulfate. Patients with HELLP syndrome have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism and bleeding during pregnancy.
Ten ice-sheet models are used to study sensitivity of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to prescribed changes of surface mass balance, sub-ice-shelf melting and basal sliding. Results exhibit a large range in projected contributions to sea-level change. In most cases, the ice volume above flotation lost is linearly dependent on the strength of the forcing. Combinations of forcings can be closely approximated by linearly summing the contributions from single forcing experiments, suggesting that nonlinear feedbacks are modest. Our models indicate that Greenland is more sensitive than Antarctica to likely atmospheric changes in temperature and precipitation, while Antarctica is more sensitive to increased ice-shelf basal melting. An experiment approximating the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s RCP8.5 scenario produces additional first-century contributions to sea level of 22.3 and 8.1 cm from Greenland and Antarctica, respectively, with a range among models of 62 and 14 cm, respectively. By 200 years, projections increase to 53.2 and 26.7 cm, respectively, with ranges of 79 and 43 cm. Linear interpolation of the sensitivity results closely approximates these projections, revealing the relative contributions of the individual forcings on the combined volume change and suggesting that total ice-sheet response to complicated forcings over 200 years can be linearized.
The role of metabolomics in the field of nutrition is continuing to grow and it has the potential to assist in the understanding of metabolic regulation and explain how minor perturbations can have a multitude of biochemical endpoints. It is this development, which creates the potential to provide the knowledge necessary to facilitate a more targeted approach to nutrition. In recent years, there has been interest in applying metabolomics to examine alterations in the metabolic profile according to weight gain/obesity. Emerging from these studies is the strong evidence that alterations in the amino acid (AA) profiles are associated with obesity. Several other studies have also shown a relationship between branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), obesity and insulin resistance. The present review focuses on the proposed link between AA and in particular BCAA, obesity and insulin resistance. In conclusion, a wealth of information is accumulating to support the role of AA, and in particular of the BCAA, in obesity.
Populations of the recently split Northern Rockhopper Penguin Eudyptes moseleyi are restricted to Tristan da Cunha and Gough Island in the South Atlantic, and Amsterdam and St Paul in the Indian Ocean. The majority of the population is in the Atlantic (> 80%), but population trends at Tristan da Cunha and Gough are uncertain. Early records indicate “millions” of penguins used to occur at Tristan da Cunha and Gough Island. The most recent estimates indicate declines in excess of 90% for both Gough and the main island of Tristan that have occurred over at least 45 and 130 years, respectively. Numbers breeding at Inaccessible and Nightingale islands (TDC) also may have declined since the 1970s, albeit modestly, whereas numbers on Tristan appear stable over the last few decades. Current population estimates are 32,000–65,000 pairs at Gough, 18–27,000 at Inaccessible, 19,500 at Nightingale, and 3,200–4,500 at Tristan. Numbers and trends at Middle Island (TDC) are unknown. Middle Island supported an estimated 100,000 pairs in 1973, and recent observations suggest this colony is being impacted by competition for space with recently recolonising Subantarctic Fur Seals Arctocephalus tropicalis. Past human exploitation and the impact of introduced predators may be responsible for the historical decline in numbers at Tristan, but these factors cannot explain the sharp decrease (since the 1950s) at Gough Island. Overall, declines at Gough, Tristan, Nightingale and Inaccessible islands indicate a three-generation decline of > 50%. Taken in combination with recent decreases in Indian Ocean populations, the Northern Rockhopper Penguins is now categorised as globally ‘Endangered’. Determining the causal factors responsible for these recent declines is an urgent priority.
This study investigated the relationship between control and coreference using an act-out task involving 81 children ranging in age from 3;1 to 8;0 and eight adults ranging in age from 30 to 55. The results replicated previous findings in revealing five developmental stages in children's interpretation of PRO, an empty pronominal element. A significant relationship was observed in the patterns of children's interpretation of forwards sentences containing PRO and those containing overt pronouns. However, there was no relationship in the development of restrictions on control and restrictions on coreference.
This study investigated the claim that very young children avoid backwards coreference in their interpretation of sentences containing pronouns. Eighty-one children ranging in age from 3;1 to 8;0 and eight adults acted out four types of pronominal sentences. Cross-sectional data and individual response patterns reveal that children initially, prefer internal coreference even when such a response is disallowed for structural reasons. Avoidance of backwards coreference appears to be a late developing phenomenon characteristic of six-year-olds. Adult response patterns, which are manifested by some very young children, emerge as the dominant pattern by age seven.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether children with a history of disorganized attachment in infancy were more likely than children without a history of disorganized attachment to exhibit symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at school age following trauma exposure. The sample consisted of 78 8.5-year-old children from a larger, ongoing prospective study evaluating the effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) on children's growth and development from birth to adolescence. At the 12-month visit, children's attachment status was scored from videotapes of infant–caregiver dyads in Ainsworth's strange situation. At the 8.5-year visit, children were administered the Violence Exposure Scale—Revised, a child-report trauma exposure inventory, and the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents by an experienced clinical psychologist masked to children's attachment status and IUCE status. Sixteen of the 78 children (21%) were classified as insecure–disorganized/insecure–other at 12 months. Poisson regressions covarying IUCE, gender, and continuity of maternal care indicated that disorganized attachment status at 12 months, compared with nondisorganized attachment status, significantly predicted both higher avoidance cluster PTSD symptoms and higher reexperiencing cluster PTSD symptoms. These findings suggest that the quality of early dyadic relationships may be linked to differences in children's later development of posttraumatic stress symptoms following a traumatic event.