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Parental reflective function (PRF) is a candidate mechanism in the transmission of intergenerational trauma. This systematic review examined (1) the association between parental history of childhood maltreatment and PRF, (2) how PRF relates to attachment in children of parent survivors, and (3) whether PRF moderates the association between parental maltreatment history and child attachment.
Ten databases were searched (from inception to 10th November 2021). Inclusion criteria were primary study, quantitative, parent participants, measures of childhood maltreatment, and postnatal PRF. Exclusion criteria were qualitative, intervention follow-up, gray literature, or a review study. Risk of bias was assessed using recommended tools. Data were narratively synthesized.
One-thousand-and-two articles were retrieved, of which eleven met inclusion criteria (N = 974 participants). Four studies found a significant association between parental childhood maltreatment and disrupted PRF, six did not, one found mixed results. One study reported the association between childhood maltreatment and attachment (nonsignificant results).
There is no clear evidence PRF is routinely disrupted in parent survivors, though there is high heterogeneity in studies. Future research should standardize design to better understand whether PRF is a candidate mechanism in intergenerational trauma.
This chapter looks at the production of data visualizations (dataviz) in newsrooms and audiences’ everyday engagements with them.
Keywords: data visualization, audience engagement, newsrooms, dataviz, storytelling, data publics
This chapter looks at both the production of data visualizations (henceforth “dataviz”) in newsrooms and audiences’ everyday engagements with dataviz, drawing on two separate research projects. The first is Seeing Data, which explored how people make sense of data visualizations, and the second is INDVIL, which explored dataviz as a semiotic, aesthetic and discursive resource in society. The chapter starts by summarizing the main findings of an INDVIL sub-project focusing on dataviz in the news, in which we found that dataviz are perceived in diverse ways and deployed for diverse purposes. It then summarizes our main findings from Seeing Data, where we also found great diversity, this time in how audiences make sense of dataviz. This diversity is important for the future work of both dataviz researchers and practitioners.
Data Visualization in Newsrooms: Trends and Challenges
How is data visualization being embedded into newsroom practice? What trends are emerging, and what challenges are arising? To answer these questions, in 2016 and 2017 we undertook 60 interviews in 26 newsrooms across six European countries: Norway (NO), Sweden (SE), Denmark (DK), Germany (DE), Switzerland (CH) and the United Kingdom (UK). Interviewees in mainstream, online news media organizations included editorial leaders, leaders of specialist data visualization teams, data journalists, visual journalists, graphic/data visualization designers and developers (although some didn't have job titles, a sign in itself that this is a rapidly emerging field). We present some highlights from our research here.
Changing Journalistic Storytelling
The growing use of data visualization within journalism means that there is a shift from writing as the main semiotic mode to data and visualization as central elements in journalistic storytelling. Many interviewees stated that data visualization is the driving force of a story, even when it is a simple graphic or diagram.
The reader stats tell us that when we insert a simple data visualization in a story, readers stay on the page a little longer. (SE)
Ice shelves restrain flow from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Climate-ocean warming could force thinning or collapse of floating ice shelves and subsequently accelerate flow, increase ice discharge and raise global mean sea levels. Petermann Glacier (PG), northwest Greenland, recently lost large sections of its ice shelf, but its response to total ice shelf loss in the future remains uncertain. Here, we use the ice flow model Úa to assess the sensitivity of PG to changes in ice shelf extent, and to estimate the resultant loss of grounded ice and contribution to sea level rise. Our results have shown that under several scenarios of ice shelf thinning and retreat, removal of the shelf will not contribute substantially to global mean sea level (<1 mm). We hypothesize that grounded ice loss was limited by the stabilization of the grounding line at a topographic high ~12 km inland of its current grounding line position. Further inland, the likelihood of a narrow fjord that slopes seawards suggests that PG is likely to remain insensitive to terminus changes in the near future.
Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) of boulders on cryoplanation terrace treads and associated bedrock cliff faces revealed Holocene ages ranging from 0 ± 825 to 8890 ± 1185 yr. The cliffs were significantly younger than the inner treads, which tended to be younger than the outer treads. Radiocarbon dates from the regolith of 3854 to 4821 cal yr BP (2σ range) indicated maximum rates of cliff recession of ~0.1 mm/yr, which suggests the onset of terrace formation before the last glacial maximum. Age, angularity, and size of clasts, together with planation across bedrock structures and the seepage of groundwater from the cliff foot, all support a process-based conceptual model of cryoplanation terrace development in which frost weathering leads to parallel cliff recession and, hence, terrace extension. The availability of groundwater during autumn freezeback is viewed as critical for frost wedging and/or the growth of segregation ice during prolonged winter frost penetration. Permafrost promotes cryoplanation by providing an impermeable frost table beneath the active layer, focusing groundwater flow, and supplying water for sediment transport by solifluction across the tread. Snow beds are considered an effect rather than a cause of cryoplanation terraces, and cryoplanation is seen as distinct from nivation.
To assess the effect of rural-to-urban migration on nutrition transition and overweight/obesity risk among women in Kenya.
Secondary analysis of data from nationally representative cross-sectional samples. Outcome variables were women’s BMI and nutrition transition. Nutrition transition was based on fifteen different household food groups and was adjusted for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Stepwise backward multiple ordinal regression analysis was applied.
Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2014.
Rural non-migrant, rural-to-urban migrant and urban non-migrant women aged 15–49 years (n 6171).
Crude data analysis showed rural-to-urban migration to be associated with overweight/obesity risk and nutrition transition. After adjustment for household wealth, no significant differences between rural non-migrants and rural-to-urban migrants for overweight/obesity risk and household consumption of several food groups characteristic of nutrition transition (animal-source, fats and sweets) were observed. Regardless of wealth, migrants were less likely to consume main staples and legumes, and more likely to consume fruits and vegetables. Identified predictive factors of overweight/obesity among migrant women were age, duration of residence in urban area, marital status and household wealth.
Our analysis showed that nutrition transition and overweight/obesity risk among rural-to-urban migrants is apparent with increasing wealth in urban areas. Several predictive factors were identified characterising migrant women being at risk for overweight/obesity. Future research is needed which investigates in depth the association between rural-to-urban migration and wealth to address inequalities in diet and overweight/obesity in Kenya.
The pore structure of vapour deposited ASW is poorly understood, despite its importance to fundamental processes such as grain chemistry, cooling of star forming regions, and planet formation. We studied structural changes of vapour deposited D2O on intra-molecular to 30 nm length scales at temperatures ranging from 18 to 180 K and observed enhanced mobility from 100 to 150 K. An Arrhenius type model describes the loss of surface area and porosity with a common set of kinetic parameters. The low activation energy (428 K) is commensurate with van der Waals forces between nm-scale substructures in the ice. Our findings imply that water porosity will always change with time, even at low temperatures.
Communication deviance (CD) reflects features of the content or manner of a person's speech that may confuse the listener and inhibit the establishment of a shared focus of attention. The construct was developed in the context of the study of familial risks for psychosis based on hypotheses regarding its effects during childhood. It is not known whether parental CD is associated with nonverbal parental behaviors that may be important in early development. This study explored the association between CD in a cohort of mothers (n = 287) at 32 weeks gestation and maternal sensitivity with infants at 29 weeks in a standard play procedure. Maternal CD predicted lower overall maternal sensitivity (B = –.385; p < .001), and the effect was somewhat greater for sensitivity to infant distress (B = –.514; p < .001) than for sensitivity to nondistress (B = –.311; p < .01). After controlling for maternal age, IQ and depression, and for socioeconomic deprivation, the associations with overall sensitivity and sensitivity to distress remained significant. The findings provide new pointers to intergenerational transmission of vulnerability involving processes implicated in both verbal and nonverbal parental behaviors.
The impact of losing a limb in military service extends well beyond initial recovery and rehabilitation, with long-term consequences and challenges requiring health-care commitments across the lifecourse. This paper presents a systematic review of the current state of knowledge regarding the long-term impact of ageing and limb-loss in military veterans. Key databases were systematically searched including: ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, PsycArticles/PsychInfo, ProQuest Psychology and ProQuest Sociology Journals, and SPORTSDiscus. Empirical studies which focused on the long-term impact of limb-loss and/or health-care requirements in veterans were included. The search process revealed 30 papers relevant for inclusion. These papers focused broadly on four themes: (a) long-term health outcomes, prosthetics use and quality of life; (b) long-term psycho-social adaptation and coping with limb-loss; (c) disability and identity; and (d) estimating the long-term costs of care and prosthetic provision. Findings present a compelling case for ensuring the long-term care needs and costs of rehabilitation for older limbless veterans are met. A dearth of information on the lived experience of limb-loss and the needs of veterans’ families calls for further research to address these important issues.
It is not known whether associations between child problem behaviours and maternal depression can be accounted for by comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) dysfunction.
To examine the contributions of maternal depression and BPD symptoms to child problem behaviours.
Depression trajectories over the fist-year postpartum were generated using repeated measurement from a general population sample of 997 mothers recruited in pregnancy. In a stratified subsample of 251, maternal depression and BPD symptoms were examined as predictors of child problem behaviours at 2.5 years.
Child problem behaviours were predicted by a high maternal depression trajectory prior to the inclusion of BPD symptoms. This association was no longer significant after the introduction of BPD symptoms.
Risks for child problem behaviours currently attributed to maternal depression may arise from more persistent and pervasive difficulties found in borderline personality dysfunction.
Associations between low birth weight and prenatal anxiety and later psychopathology may arise from programming effects likely to be adaptive under some, but not other, environmental exposures and modified by sex differences. If physiological reactivity, which also confers vulnerability or resilience in an environment-dependent manner, is associated with birth weight and prenatal anxiety, it will be a candidate to mediate the links with psychopathology. From a general population sample of 1,233 first-time mothers recruited at 20 weeks gestation, a sample of 316 stratified by adversity was assessed at 32 weeks and when their infants were aged 29 weeks (N = 271). Prenatal anxiety was assessed by self-report, birth weight from medical records, and vagal reactivity from respiratory sinus arrhythmia during four nonstressful and one stressful (still-face) procedure. Lower birth weight for gestational age predicted higher vagal reactivity only in girls (interaction term, p = .016), and prenatal maternal anxiety predicted lower vagal reactivity only in boys (interaction term, p = .014). These findings are consistent with sex differences in fetal programming, whereby prenatal risks are associated with increased stress reactivity in females but decreased reactivity in males, with distinctive advantages and penalties for each sex.
Previous studies have shown that fish protein, as well as marine n-3 PUFA, may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk profile. The objectives of this study were to investigate the combined effects of fish gelatine (FG) and n-3 PUFA supplementation on (1) energy intake and body weight, (2) lipid profile and (3) inflammatory and CVD markers in free-living insulin-resistant males and females. Subjects were asked to consume, in a crossover study design with two experimental periods of 8 weeks each, an n-3 PUFA supplement and n-3 PUFA supplement plus FG (n-3 PUFA + FG). n-3 PUFA + FG led to an increase in protein intake and a decrease in carbohydrate intake compared with n-3 PUFA (P < 0·02) in males and females. Sex–treatment interactions were observed for TAG (P = 0·03) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (P = 0·001) levels. In females, n-3 PUFA reduced plasma TAG by 8 % and n-3 PUFA + FG by 23 %, whereas in males, n-3 PUFA reduced plasma TAG by 25 % and n-3 PUFA + FG by 11 %. n-3 PUFA increased serum hsCRP by 13 % and n-3 PUFA + FG strongly reduced hsCRP by 40 % in males, whereas in females, n-3 PUFA reduced serum hsCRP by 6 % and n-3 PUFA + FG increased hsCRP by 20 %. In conclusion, supplementation with FG may enhance the lipid-lowering effect of marine n-3 PUFA in females and beneficially counteract the effect of n-3 PUFA on serum hsCRP in males. Further studies are needed to identify the sex-dependent mechanisms responsible for the divergent effects of FG on TAG and hsCRP levels in females and males, respectively.
Hydrogen terminated diamond field effect transistors (FET) of 50nm gate length have been fabricated, their DC operation characterised and their physical and chemical structure inspected by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). DC characterisation of devices demonstrated pinch-off of the source-drain current can be maintained by the 50nm gate under low bias conditions. At larger bias, off-state output conductance increases, demonstrating most likely the onset of short-channel effects at this reduced gate length.
We describe trends in the prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) by birthweight group, and in the severity of motor impairments and presence of associated intellectual impairment, in Northern Ireland from 1981 to 1997 (n=909; 510 males, 399 females; total population 415936 live births) using data from a population-based register of CP. Children with suspected CP or who died before 1 year of age and those with CP of postneonatal origin were excluded. Prevalence of CP was 2.2 per 1000 live births without significant change over time. Among very-low-birthweight (<1500g) live births, prevalence was 44.5 per 1000 (95% confidence interval 32.3–59.8) from 1994 to 1997, with evidence of a statistically significant decline in prevalence since the mid- to late 1980s accompanied by a decrease in the severity of motor impairment and likelihood of intellectual impairment. Among moderately-low-birthweight (1500–2499g) children there was weaker evidence of a peak prevalence in the late 1980s. Prevalence among normal-birthweight infants did not change significantly, but outcome in terms of severity of motor impairment and intellectual impairment improved in the 1990s. Occurrence of bilateral spasticity from 1994 to 1997 was associated with greater severity and likelihood of intellectual impairment for normal-birthweight individuals than for low- or very-low-birthweight individuals.
The stark antithesis between the secular and the religious has been effectively challenged by scholarship of early modern Italy, which has shown the degree to which these fields necessarily overlapped. Nevertheless, studies of early modern female devotion, especially within convents, often present women as caught between competing claims of kinship and clerical authority, a conflict between family and convent, an opposition between the secular and the divine. This paper argues that within Neapolitan conventual circles, at least, nuns' noble blood was regarded as enhancing the spiritual value of their convents, and that, on the whole, the way in which the Decrees of the Council of Trent were interpreted served to “aristocratize” convents. Something of a fusion occurred between nobility and spirituality in women. This paper relates this fusion to discourses on nobility and to the aristocratization of convent culture after enclosure at Trent, examining how it marked post-Tridentine Neapolitan convent architecture and urbanism. In short, I argue that nuns' nobility enhanced the spiritual value of Neapolitan convents after Trent, and that such status was communicated discursively, architecturally, and urbanistically.
Conventional medical treatment is often ineffective in the management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Although controlled trials of psychotherapy and hypnotherapy have been shown to be effective, psychological interventions are not widely available. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of the clinical provision of combined group cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) and hypnotherapy delivered by 13 therapists using a standardized protocol. Attempts were also made to disseminate the programme by patient graduates. A session-by-session instruction manual was compiled and the protocol was tested in a pilot group. Thereafter a total of 158 patients in 23 different groups took part in the 16-session intervention. Attrition rate was very low. Significant improvements in both gastrointestinal and psychosocial symptoms were observed following the intervention. The results suggest that professionally led group psychotherapy and hypnotherapy is a feasible option for the treatment of sufferers of IBS and increased efforts should be made in the training and supervision of user facilitators.
The purpose of the present study was to estimate and compare the effects of macronutrient composition (relative portions of macronutrients) and of non-macronutrient components (e.g. water and fibre) on energy density (energy per unit weight) of the diets of human subjects. We used standard macronutrient energy content values to develop a simple conceptual model and equation for energy density in terms of % energy from dietary fat and % non-macronutrients by weight. To study these effects in self-selected diets of free-living subjects, we used four consecutive days of self-weighed and recorded food records for thirty-two male and thirteen female free-living adult subjects. In the range of typical human diets, the effect of % non-macronutrients by weight was several times greater than that of % energy from dietary fat, both in absolute terms and relative to daily variation in subjects' diets. Both effects were large enough to be physiologically important. Non-macronutrients (% by weight) alone explained much more of the variation in self-selected dietary energy density either between subjects (R2 95 %) or day-to-day (R2 95 %) than did % energy from dietary fat (R2 5 % and 6 % respectively). Omitting beverages gave similar results. The smaller effect of macronutrient composition on energy density of diets is mainly because alterations in macronutrient composition affect only the portion of typical dietary intake that is macronutrients (one-quarter to one-third of weight). Mathematical methods are also useful in analysing observational data and for separating effects of macronutrient composition and non-macronutrients in intervention studies. These results illustrate the importance of considering non-macronutrients in the design and analysis of experimental or observational dietary data.