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Evidence linking subjective concerns about cognition with poorer objective cognitive performance is limited by reliance on unidimensional measures of self-perceptions of aging (SPA). We used the awareness of age-related change (AARC) construct to assess self-perception of both positive and negative age-related changes (AARC gains and losses). We tested whether AARC has greater utility in linking self-perceptions to objective cognition compared to well-established measures of self-perceptions of cognition and aging. We examined the associations of AARC with objective cognition, several psychological variables, and engagement in cognitive training.
Cross-sectional observational study.
The sample comprised 6056 cognitively healthy participants (mean [SD] age = 66.0 [7.0] years); divided into subgroups representing middle, early old, and advanced old age.
We used an online cognitive battery and measures of global AARC, AARC specific to the cognitive domain, subjective cognitive change, attitudes toward own aging (ATOA), subjective age (SA), depression, anxiety, self-rated health (SRH).
Scores on the AARC measures showed stronger associations with objective cognition compared to other measures of self-perceptions of cognition and aging. Higher AARC gains were associated with poorer cognition in middle and early old age. Higher AARC losses and poorer cognition were associated across all subgroups. Higher AARC losses were associated with greater depression and anxiety, more negative SPA, poorer SRH, but not with engagement in cognitive training.
Assessing both positive and negative self-perceptions of cognition and aging is important when linking self-perceptions to cognitive functioning. Objective cognition is one of the many variables – alongside psychological variables – related to perceived cognitive losses.
In this large population study, we set out to examine the profile of mild behavioral impairment (MBI) by using the Mild Behavioral Impairment Checklist (MBI-C) and to explore its factor structure when employed as a self-reported and informant-rated tool.
A total of 5,742 participant-informant dyads participated in the study.
Both participants and informants completed the MBI-C. The factor structure of the MBI-C was evaluated by exploratory factor analysis.
The most common MBI-C items, as rated by self-reported and informants, related to affective dysregulation (mood/anxiety symptoms), being present in 34% and 38% of the sample, respectively. The least common items were those relating to abnormal thoughts and perception (psychotic symptoms) (present in 3% and 6% of the sample, respectively). Only weak correlations were observed between self-reported and informant-reported MBI-C responses. Exploratory factor analysis for both sets of respondent answers indicated that a five-factor solution for the MBI-C was appropriate, reflecting the hypothesized structure of the MBI-C.
This is the largest and most detailed report on the frequency of MBI symptoms in a nondementia sample. The full spectrum of MBI symptoms was present in our sample, whether rated by self-reported or informant report. However, we show that the MBI-C performs differently in self-reported versus informant-reported situations, which may have important implications for the use of the questionnaire in clinic and research.
While extensive literature on the role of the serotonin receptor 1A (5-HT1A-R) in cognition exists, the findings are largely from animal studies. There has been little research conducted into 5-HT1A-R genotypes and cognitive function in humans. This article evaluates the role of 5-HT1A-R genotypes on the profile of cognitive function in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
The study sample was 455 MDD patients aged between 18 and 55 years. They had enrolled into a clinical trial and were tested prior to dosing on the baseline study day using the CDR System, an integrated set of 3 attention tests, 2 working memory tests, and 4 episodic memory tests. 5-HT1A-R genotyping for (SNP ID rs6295) had been conducted during the study screening period.
Validated factor scores were derived from the 9 tests. It was found that patients with the C/C genotype for the C(1019)G polymorphism of the 5-HT1A-R were significantly superior in retaining and retrieving information, in both working and episodic memory, than those with either the C/G or the G/G genotypes. No differences were found in measures of attention or in the speed of retrieval of information from memory.
This is, to our knowledge, the first relationship found between objective tests of cognitive function and 5-HT1A-R genotypes in MDD.
To report on the haemoglobin concentrations and prevalence of anaemia in schoolchildren in eight countries in Africa and Asia.
Blood samples were collected during surveys of the health of schoolchildren as a part of programmes to develop school-based health services.
Rural schools in Ghana, Indonesia, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Tanzania and Vietnam.
Nearly 14 000 children enrolled in basic education in three age ranges (7–11 years, 12–14 years and Ä15 years) which reflect the new UNICEF/WHO thresholds to define anaemia.
Anaemia was found to be a severe public health problem (defined as >40% anaemic) in five African countries for children aged 7–11 years and in four of the same countries for children aged 12–14 years. Anaemia was not a public health problem in the children studied in the two Asian countries. More boys than girls were anaemic, and children who enrolled late in school were more likely to be anaemic than children who enrolled closer to the correct age. The implications of the four new thresholds defining anaemia for school-age children are examined.
Anaemia is a significant problem in schoolchildren in sub-Saharan Africa. School-based health services which provide treatments for simple conditions that cause blood loss, such as worms, followed by multiple micronutrient supplements including iron, have the potential to provide relief from a large burden of anaemia.
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