To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Stellar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) may play an important role in stellar and planetary evolution, therefore the knowledge on parameter distributions of this energetic activity phenomenon is highly relevant. During the last years several attempts have been made to detect stellar CMEs of late-type main-sequence and pre main-sequence stars from dedicated optical spectroscopic observations. Up to now only a handful of distinct stellar CME detections are known which contradicts the results from stellar CME modelling, which predict higher CME rates. We report on dedicated ongoing and future observational attempts to detect stellar CMEs and discuss the observational results with respect to the results from stellar CME modelling.
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are explosive events that occur basically daily on the Sun. It is thought that these events play a crucial role in the angular momentum and mass loss of late-type stars, and also shape the environment in which planets form and live. Stellar CMEs can be detected in optical spectra in the Balmer lines, especially in Hα, as blue-shifted extra emission/absorption. To increase the detection probability one can monitor young open clusters, in which the stars are due to their youth still rapid rotators, and thus magnetically active and likely to exhibit a large number of CMEs. Using ESO facilities and the Nordic Optical Telescope we have obtained time series of multi-object spectroscopic observations of late-type stars in six open clusters with ages ranging from 15 Myrs to 300 Myrs. Additionally, we have studied archival data of numerous active stars. These observations will allow us to obtain information on the occurrence rate of CMEs in late-type stars with different ages and spectral types. Here we report on the preliminary outcome of our studies.
The current photometric datasets, that span decades, allow for studying long-term cycles on active stars. Complementary Ca H&K observations give information also on the cycles of normal solar-like stars, which have significantly smaller, and less easily detectable, spots. In the recent years, high precision space-based observations, for example from the Kepler satellite, have allowed also to study the sunspot-like spot sizes in other stars. Here I review what is known about the properties of the cyclic stellar activity in other stars than our Sun.
Stellar flares are known to originate from magnetic reconnection in the atmospheres of late–type stars or through radiatively driven wind instabilities in early–type stars. Situated right between these two groups, the A–type stars are not expected to support either of the two mechanisms. However, recent studies report flare features in the Kepler light curves of 32 A–type stars, contradicting theory. We investigate the stars reported in literature, setting strong constraints on the detection criteria. Although significantly fewer, we conclude that flare-like features are present. To determine the origin we obtained high-resolution spectra from the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) for the ten brightest, flaring A-type stars for 3-4 epochs. Here we present the preliminary results of these spectroscopic observations, with respect to spectral classification and binarity.
With the precise, nearly-continuous photometry from the Kepler satellite and the sub-milliarcsecond resolving capabilities of the CHARA Array, astronomy is entering a new age for the imaging and understanding of stellar magnetic activity. We present first results from our Guest Observer Program, where 180 single-epoch surface image reconstructions of KIC 5110407 have revealed differential rotation and hints of magnetic activity cycles based on both spot and flare variations. Analysis of our larger, full dataset will establish in unprecedented detail how surface magnetic activity correlates with stellar age and spectral type. In addition to Kepler work, we have harnessed the power of the world's largest infrared interferometer to “directly” image the spotted surfaces of a few of the closest RS CVn systems, allowing a comparison of contemporaneous Doppler and light-curve inversion imaging techniques.
The existence of starspots on late-type giant stars in close binary systems, that exhibit rapid rotation due to tidal locking, has been known for more than five decades. Photometric monitoring spanning decades has allowed studying the long-term magnetic activity in these stars revealing complicated activity cycles. The development of observing and analysis techniques that has occurred during the past two decades has also enabled us to study the detailed starspot and magnetic field configurations on these active giants. In the recent years magnetic fields have also been detected on slowly rotating giants and supergiant stars. In this paper I review what is known of the surface magnetism in the cool giant and supergiant stars.
Late-type stars exhibit cool regions on their surface, the stellar equivalent of sunspots. These dark starspots can also mimic the radial velocity variations caused by orbiting planets, making it at times difficult to distinguish between planets and activity signatures. The amount of spots on the Sun and other cool stars changes cyclically during an activity cycle, which has length varying from about a year to longer than the solar 11 years. In this work we investigate the influence of varying amount of starspots on the sparsely sampled radial velocity observations - which are the norm in the radial velocity studies searching for exoplanets on wide orbits. We study two simulated cases: one with a random spot configuration, and one where the spot occurrence is concentrated. In addition we use Doppler images of young solar analogue V889 Her as a high activity case.
Stellar magnetic activity manifests itself in a variety of ways including starspots–cool, dark regions on the stellar surface. Starspots can cause variations (‘jitter’) in spectral line-profiles which can mimic the radial velocity (RV) variations caused by an orbiting planet, or create RV noise that can drown out a planetary signature. Cool, low-mass M dwarf stars can be highly active, which can make detection of potentially habitable planets around these stars difficult. We investigate radial velocity variations caused by different activity (spot) patterns on M dwarf stars in order to determine the limits of detectability for small planets orbiting active M dwarfs. We report on our progress toward the aim of answering the following questions: What types of spot patterns are realistic for M dwarf stars? What effect will spots have on M dwarf RV measurements? Can jitter from M dwarf spots mimic planetary signals? What is the ideal observing wavelength to reduce M dwarf jitter?
Stars are usually faint point sources and investigating their surfaces and interiors observationally is very demanding. Here I give a review on the state-of-the-art observing techniques and recent results on studying interiors and surface features of active stars.
Rapid rotation enhances the dynamo operating in stars, and thus also introduces significantly stronger magnetic activity than is seen in slower rotators. Many young cool stars still have the rapid, primordial rotation rates induced by the interstellar molecular cloud from which they were formed. Also older stars in close binary systems are often rapid rotators. These types of stars can show strong magnetic activity and large starspots. In the case of large starspots which cause observable changes in the brightness of the star, and even in the shapes of the spectral line profiles, one can get information on the rotation of the star. At times even information on the spot rotation at different stellar latitudes can be obtained, similarly to the solar surface differential rotation measurements using magnetic features as tracers. Here, I will review investigations of stellar rotation based on starspots. I will discuss what we can obtain from ground-based photometry and how that improves with the uninterrupted, high precision, observations from space. The emphasis will be on how starspots, and even stellar surface differential rotation, can be studied using high resolution spectra.
The Kepler satellite provides a unique opportunity to study the detailed optical photometric variability of late-type stars with unprecedentedly long (several year) continuous monitoring and sensitivity to very small-scale variations. We are studying a sample of over two hundred cool (mid-A - late-K spectral type) stars using Kepler long-cadence (30 minute sampling) observations. These stars show a remarkable range of photometric variability, but in this paper we concentrate on rotational modulation due to starspots and flaring. Modulation at the 0.1% level is readily discernable. We highlight the rapid timescales of starspot evolution seen on solar-like stars with rotational periods between 2 and 7 days.
Our recent studies of late B-type stars with HgMn peculiarity revealed for the first time the presence of fast dynamical evolution of chemical spots on their surfaces. These observations suggest a hitherto unknown physical process operating in the stars with radiative outer envelopes. Furthermore, we have also discovered existence of magnetic fields on these stars that have up to now been thought to be non-magnetic. Here we will discuss the dynamical spot evolution on HD 11753 and our new results on magnetic fields on AR Aur.
We have obtained high resolution, high S/N spectra of the RS CVn binary IM Peg using UVES spectrograph at Kueyen 8.2m telescope of ESO VLT. We use Doppler imaging techniques to obtain stellar surface temperature maps from the UVES data. The TempMap code allows us to use surface differential rotation as an input parameter and thus to try to construct the rotation pattern on the stellar surface as part of the inversion process. The UVES observations are combined with spectroscopic observations from another time period obtained at the STELLA observatory. We obtain stellar surface temperature maps also from these spectra. These Doppler images are used to study the magnetic activity and surface differential rotation on IM Peg.
Differential rotation plays a crucial role in the alpha-omega dynamo, and thus also in creation of magnetic fields in stars with convective outer envelopes. Still, measuring the radial differential rotation on stars is impossible with the current techniques, and even the measurement of surface differential rotation is difficult. In this work we investigate the surface differential rotation obtained from dynamo models using similar techniques as are used on observations, and compare the results with the known radial differential rotation used when creating the dynamo model.
We present results from an investigation where the long-term photometry of several magnetically active RS CVn binaries is studied to see whether or not they show permanent active longitudes and the flip-flop phenomenon. We confirm that it is very common for the active regions to occur on permanent active longitudes. Many of our target stars also show clear flip-flop phenomenon, but often the data set is not long enough for reliable determination of the flip-flop period.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.