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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To determine the prevalence of myocardial diastolic dysfunction (DD) and association of serum concentration of the cardiac biomarker serum soluble ST2 in HIV-infected as compared to uninfected Tanzanian adults at the time of HIV diagnosis. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this cross-sectional study we consecutively enrolled HIV-infected participants and uninfected controls at a large, referral HIV clinic in Mwanza, Tanzania. Standardized history, physical examination, echocardiography and serum samples were obtained. The primary outcome was prevalence of myocardial diastolic dysfunction in HIV-infected as compared to uninfected adults. The secondary outcome was the association of baseline serum sST2 concentration with diastolic dysfunction prevalence. Regression models were used to quantify the associations. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We enrolled 388 HIV-infected, ART naïve and 461 HIV-uninfected controls. Participants with HIV had a higher prevalence of DD (OR = 2.44, p = 0.001, controlled for age, sex, hypertension and BMI) and more severe dysfunction (66.7% vs 42.5%, p = 0.056) at an earlier age. Baseline serum sST2 concentration was significantly associated with DD in HIV-infected but not uninfected participants (p = 0.04 and 0.90, respectively). More HIV-infected adults with concurrent DD exceeded the threshold of 35ng/mL as compared to controls (15.7% vs 5.3%, p<0.0001). Additionally, a significant population level shift to higher sST2 concentration was observed in HIV-infected adults with dysfunction as compared to both HIV-infected without and HIV-uninfected adults with dysfunction (Kolmogrov-Smirnov test: p = 0.02 and 0.04). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In a large population of HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV infection is associated with myocardial diastolic dysfunction. This dysfunction is associated with higher sST2 concentrations. Therefore, we conclude that the sST2 pathway may provide insight into the pathophysiologic mechanisms of dysfunction in HIV-infected adults.
Personality may predispose family caregivers to experience caregiving differently in similar situations and influence the outcomes of caregiving. A limited body of research has examined the role of some personality traits for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) in relation to burden and depression.
Data from a large clinic-based national study in South Korea, the Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Research (CARE), were analyzed (N = 476). Path analysis was performed to explore the association between family caregivers’ personality traits and HRQoL. With depression and burden as mediating factors, direct and indirect associations between five personality traits and HRQoL of family caregivers were examined.
Results demonstrated the mediating role of caregiver burden and depression in linking two personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) and HRQoL. Neuroticism and extraversion directly and indirectly influenced the mental HRQoL of caregivers. Neuroticism and extraversion only indirectly influenced their physical HRQoL. Neuroticism increased the caregiver's depression, whereas extraversion decreased it. Neuroticism only was mediated by burden to influence depression and mental and physical HRQoL.
Personality traits can influence caregiving outcomes and be viewed as an individual resource of the caregiver. A family caregiver's personality characteristics need to be assessed for tailoring support programs to get the optimal benefits from caregiver interventions.
To examine the hypothesis that the association between vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms is dependent upon total cholesterol level in a representative national sample of the South Korean population.
This was a population-based cross-sectional study.
The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, 2010–2012).
We included 7198 adults aged 20–88 years.
The incidence of depressive symptoms in individuals with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<20 ng/ml) was 1·54-fold (95 % CI 1·20, 1·98) greater than in individuals without vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≥20 ng/ml). The relationship was stronger in individuals with normal-to-borderline serum total cholesterol (serum total cholesterol<240 mg/dl; OR=1·60; 95 % CI 1·23, 2·08) and non-significant in individuals with high serum total cholesterol (OR=0·97; 95 % CI 0·52, 1·81) after adjustment for confounding variables (age, sex, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking status, regular exercise, income level, education level, marital status, changes in body weight, perceived body shape, season of examination date and cholesterol profiles).
The association between vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms was weakened by high serum total cholesterol status. These findings suggest that both vitamin D and total cholesterol are important targets for the prevention and treatment of depression.
In this paper, the electrical properties of bottom-gate (BG) polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) by NiSi2 seed-induced lateral crystallization (SILC) and its applications are presented. Sequential lateral solidification (SLS), which is one of crystallization methods, is known to have poor electrical properties of TFTs with BG structures due to problems induced by laser. Therefore, the laser method cannot be used to well-developed production line of amorphous-Si (a-Si) TFT, resulting in large initial investment cost to change fabrication procedures. On the other hand, the BG poly-Si TFT by SILC (SILC-BGPS TFT) has basically compatible process flows with that of the a-Si TFT. The SILC-BGPS TFT exhibited threshold voltage of -3.9 V, steep subthreshold slope of 130 mV/dec, a high field-effect mobility of 129 cm2/Vs , and Ion/Ioff ratio of ∼106.
Decreased hemoglobin levels increase the risk of developing dementia among the elderly. However, the underlying mechanisms that link decreased hemoglobin levels to incident dementia still remain unclear, possibly due to the fact that few studies have reported on the relationship between low hemoglobin levels and neuroimaging markers. We, therefore, investigated the relationships between decreased hemoglobin levels, cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD), and cortical atrophy in cognitively healthy women and men.
Cognitively normal women (n = 1,022) and men (n = 1,018) who underwent medical check-ups and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were enrolled at a health promotion center. We measured hemoglobin levels, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) scales, lacunes, and microbleeds. Cortical thickness was automatically measured using surface based methods. Multivariate regression analyses were performed after controlling for possible confounders.
Decreased hemoglobin levels were not associated with the presence of WMH, lacunes, or microbleeds in women and men. Among women, decreased hemoglobin levels were associated with decreased cortical thickness in the frontal (Estimates, 95% confidence interval, −0.007, (−0.013, −0.001)), temporal (−0.010, (−0.018, −0.002)), parietal (−0.009, (−0.015, −0.003)), and occipital regions (−0.011, (−0.019, −0.003)). Among men, however, no associations were observed between hemoglobin levels and cortical thickness.
Our findings suggested that decreased hemoglobin levels affected cortical atrophy, but not increased CSVD, among women, although the association is modest. Given the paucity of modifiable risk factors for age-related cognitive decline, our results have important public health implications.
To evaluate the risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after gastric surgery in patients in Korea.
A nationwide prospective multicenter study.
Twenty university-affiliated hospitals in Korea.
The Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS), a Web-based system, was developed. Patients in 20 Korean hospitals from 2007 to 2009 were prospectively monitored for SSI for up to 30 days after gastric surgery. Demographic data, hospital characteristics, and potential perioperative risk factors were collected and analyzed, using multivariate logistic regression models.
Of the 4,238 case patients monitored, 64.9% (2,752) were male, and mean age (±SD) was 58.8 (±12.3) years. The SSI rates were 2.92, 6.45, and 10.87 per 100 operations for the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system risk index categories of 0, 1, and 2 or 3, respectively. The majority (69.4%) of the SSIs observed were organ or space SSIs. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.67 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–2.58]), increased operation time (1.20 [1.07–1.34] per 1-hour increase), reoperation (7.27 [3.68–14.38]), combined multiple procedures (1.79 [1.13–2.83]), prophylactic administration of the first antibiotic dose after skin incision (3.00 [1.09–8.23]), and prolonged duration (≥7 days) of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP; 2.70 [1.26–5.64]) were independently associated with increased risk of SSI.
Male sex, inappropriate SAP, and operation-related variables are independent risk factors for SSI after gastric surgery.
Thiazolidinediones, such as rosiglitazone or pioglitazone, are anti-diabetic agents that have been expected to show a beneficial effect in Alzheimer's disease (AD) because of their anti-inflammatory effect. However, these agents have failed to show a significant beneficial effect on AD in recent clinical trials. Here, we suggest that low-dose rosiglitazone treatment, and not the conventional doses, has an amyloid β (Aβ)-clearing effect by increasing LRP1, an Aβ outward transporter in the blood–brain barrier. Rosiglitazone up-regulated LRP1 mRNA and protein expression and LRP1 promoter activity in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). Aβ uptake through LRP1 in HBMECs was also increased by rosiglitazone. This increase in LRP1 and Aβ uptake was observed in up to 10 nm rosiglitazone concentration. At concentrations above 20 nm rosiglitazone, the LRP1 expression and Aβ uptake in HBMECs were not altered. The possible mechanism of this unusual dose response is discussed. This study suggests a new therapeutic application of thiazolidinediones for AD at a much lower dose than the doses used for diabetes treatment.
Astaxanthin is a carotenoid with antioxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The pharmacokinetics of astaxanthin after its intravenous (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) and oral (100 and 200 mg/kg) administration and its first-pass extraction ratios after its intravenous, intraportal or intragastric (20 mg/kg) administration were evaluated in rats. The pharmacokinetic parameters of astaxanthin were dose dependent after its intravenous administration, due to the saturable hepatic metabolism of astaxanthin, but dose independent after oral administration. The gastrointestinal absorption of astaxanthin followed the flip-flop model. The hepatic and gastrointestinal first-pass extraction ratios of astaxanthin were approximately 0·490 and 0·901, respectively. Astaxanthin was metabolised primarily by hepatic cytochrome P-450 1A1/2 in rats. Astaxanthin was unstable up to 4 h incubation in four rat gastric juices and up to 24 h incubation in various buffer solutions having a pH of 1–13. The tissue/plasma ratios of astaxanthin at 8 and 24 h after its oral administration (100 mg/kg) were greater than unity for all tissues studied, except in the heart, at 8 h, indicating that the rat tissues studied had high affinity for astaxanthin.
We examined the effects of various exercise intensities on recovery from middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats.
First, we administered a 120-minute left MCAO to male Sprague-Dawley rats and randomly assigned them to one of four groups: no exercise (Group 1), mild exercise (Group 2), moderate exercise (Group 3), and severe exercise (Group 4). Then, we trained the rats for 30 min per day for one week or two weeks. We used a five-point neurological evaluation scale to measure neurological deficits 1-day, 4-days, 7-days, 10-days and 14-days after MCAO and measured infarct volume by use of 2% 2,3,4-triphenyltetrazolium chloride in exercised brains. We also performed immunohistochemistry analysis of the brain to observe reactive astrocytosis at the peri-infarct region.
Neurological examination indicated that Group 2 and 3 recovered better than Group 1 after one week and two weeks (p<0.05). Moreover, Group 2 and 3 had reduced brain infarct volume compared with Group 1 after one week (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between Group 4 and Group 1. The thickness of the peri-infarct astrocytosis was significantly reduced in Group 4 relative to Group 1 after one week. There was a significant negative correlation between the extent of reactive astrocytosis and neurological recovery (r= -0.648, p<0.01).
This study demonstrates that mild to moderate exercise that begins soon after induced cerebral ischemia promotes recovery and that astrocytes may have an important role in the recovery process.
The present study was undertaken to assess the beneficial effects of a daily consumption of 8 % freeze-dried red-pigmented leafy lettuce (Lactuca sativa) on CVD. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat high-cholesterol diet supplemented with or without red-pigmented leafy lettuce for 4 weeks. The present results showed that the red-pigmented leafy lettuce-supplemented diet significantly decreased the level of total and LDL-cholesterol and TAG in the plasma of the mice. The atherosclerotic index was calculated to be 46 % lower in the mice fed with the lettuce diet compared with the control diet. Lipid peroxidation measured by 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was markedly reduced in the plasma, liver, heart and kidney of the mice fed the lettuce diet. The content of antioxidants (total glutathione and β-carotene) was significantly increased by lettuce supplementation. The antioxidant defence system by antioxidant enzymes including glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and paraoxanase in blood or liver tissues was also increased, and showed the improved oxidative stress in the mice fed the lettuce diet. The measurement of tail DNA (%), tail extent moment and olive tail moment indicated that the lettuce diet increased the resistance of hepatocyte and lymphocyte DNA to oxidative damage. The present study showed that the supplementation of a high-cholesterol high-fat diet with 8 % red-pigmented leafy lettuce resulted in an improvement of plasma cholesterol and lipid levels, prevention of lipid peroxidation and an increase of the antioxidant defence system and, therefore, could contribute to reduce the risk factors of CVD.
Cellulose electro-active paper (EAPap) has attracted much attention as a new smart electronic material to be utilized as mechanical sensors, bio compatible applications and wireless communications. The thin EAPap film has many advantages such as lightweight, flexible, dryness, biodegradable, easy to chemically modify, cheap and abundance. Also EAPap film has a good reversibility for mechanical performance, such as bending movement, under electric field. The main actuation mechanism governed by piezoelectric property can be modulated by material direction and stretching ratio during process. In this paper we present the overview as well as fabrication process of cellulose EAPap as a novel smart material. Also we propose the method to enhance the piezoelectricity, its mechanical and electromechanical properties. In addition, the fabrication of high quality metal patterns with Schottky diode on the cellulose surface is an initiating stage for the integration of the EAPap actuator and electronic components. The integration of flexible actuator and electronic elements has huge potential application including flying magic carpets, microwave driven flying insets and micro-robots and smart wall papers.
Porcelain (veneer layer)/alumina (core layer) is a typical dental crown structure. Due to its high incidence of failure, a new porcelain/mullite (buffer layer)/alumina trilayer structure is designed, fabricated, and evaluated. Alumina green bodies were prepared by gel-casting process, and then calcined at 900 and 1100°C to infiltrate mullite precursor slurry of silica-rich (Al2O3·2SiO2) composition into the bodies. Porosity in the bodies is not dependent on calcination temperature, resulting in a similar infiltration depth. Porcelain was coated on the alumina sintered at 1600°C with and without mullite buffer layer. There are no delamination or cracks observed after firing the layered materials. Rod type microstructure and continuous composition are indicated at the interface in the case of the layered structure with mullite buffer layer. To investigate the cracking resistance behavior for this new structure, Vickers indentation and Hertzian contact fatigue tests were conducted. Cracks do not penetrate the interface with mullite buffer layer into the porcelain, showing a reversal case for the layered structure without mullite buffer layer. The layered structure with mullite buffer layer shows higher critical load for fracture than that without mullite buffer layer. Fracture mode of the layered structures in cyclic fatigue shows a top layer (porcelain) fracture at relatively low load (P = 250 N) and higher cycles (n = 106), and a bottom layer (alumina) fracture at higher load (P = 300 N) and relatively low cycles (n = 105).
The present study was designed to define how dietary fat type regulates body adiposity in dietary obesity-susceptible (DOS) Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Eighty-three SD rats received a purified diet containing 50 g maize oil (MO)/kg for 3 weeks and then thirty-nine of the rats, designated as the DOS rats, were allotted to diets containing 160 g MO (DOS-MO), beef tallow (DOS-BT) or fish oil (DOS-FO)/kg for 9 weeks. As a result of the experiment, the DOS-FO rats had significantly (P<0·05) reduced weight gain and abdominal and epididymal fat-pad mass than the DOS-MO and DOS-BT rats. Serum leptin level was also significantly (P<0·05) lower in the DOS-FO rats; however, hypothalamic leptin receptor (a and b) mRNA and neuropeptide Y expressions were not altered by dietary fat sources. A lower acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA expression in the liver was observed in the DOS-FO group, whereas hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ mRNA and protein expressions were markedly elevated in the DOS-FO group compared with those in the other groups. We did not observe differences in acetyl-CoA carboxylase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ expressions in epididymal fat of the DOS rats consuming MO, BT or FO. It is concluded from our present observations that dietary fat type, especially that rich in FO, plays a potential role in down-regulation of adiposity by altering hepatic lipogenic genes, rather than feeding behaviour, in the DOS-SD rats.
Large area, flat panel detectors are being investigated for digital radiogrpahy and fluoroscopy. Theses detectors employ an x-ray conversion layer of photoconductor to detect x-rays. The amorphous selenium layer that is currently being studied for its use as an x-ray photoconductor is not pure a-Se but rather a-Se doped with 0.2-0.5% As and 10-30 ppm Cl, also known as stabilized a-Se. The suitability of the stabilized a-Se is largely determined by its charge on generating, transporting and trapping properties.
In this paper, a conventional time-of-flight measurement was carried out to analyze the transport properties of charge carriers. A laser beam with pulse duration of 5 ns and wavelength of 350 nm was illuminated on the surface of the stabilized a-Se with thickness of 400 μm. The photo response signals of the hole and electron were measured at the applied electric field of 10 V/μm as a function of time. The measured transit times of the hole and electron were about 229.17μs and about 8.73μs at 10 V/μm, respectively. The measured mobility indicated a slight dependence with respect to the applied electric field with a range of 4-10 V/μm. The experimental results showed that the measured mobility of the hole and electron was 0.04584 cm2V-1s-1 and 0.00174 cm2V-1s-1 at the electric field of 10 V/μm.
Distribution characteristics of boundary phase in BaB2O4 added BaTiO3 ceramics were investigated with a focus on the curvature difference of solid–liquid interfaces at two-grain and triple junctions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that the triple junction of solid grains showed the positive curvature of solid–liquid interface and consisted of the mixture of liquid phase and crystallized BaB2O4 phase. On the other hand, flat amorphous thin film of 2.5-nm thickness was observed at the two-grain junction. This kind of boundary phase distribution characteristic was explained by the solubility difference between two kinds of junctions of solid grains that had different curvature of solid–liquid interfaces.
Si delta-doping in the GaN layer has been successfully demonstrated by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition at a growth temperature of 1040 . Si delta-doping concentration increases and then decreases with an increase in delta-doping time. This indicates that delta-doping concentration is limited by the desorption process owing to much higher thermal decomposition efficiency of silane at high growth temperatures of GaN. In addition, it was observed that the use of a post-purge step in the ammonia ambient reduces Si delta-doping concentration. From capacitance-voltage measurement, a sharp carrier concentration profile with a full-width at half maximum of 4.1 nm has been achieved with a high peak concentration of 9.8 1018 cm−3.
In this study, the KLN thin films were prepared by RF-magnetron sputtering method onto Coming 1737 glass. The effect of working pressure, substrate temperature, RF-power, sputter gas ratio (Ar/O2) during deposition was investigated. For an optimum deposition condition, the postannealing, RTA(rapid thermal annealing) and IPA(in-situ post annealing)methods were employed. Both RTA and IPA processes, which were conducted at different deposition and annealing temperature influenced surface morphology and optical properties of the films. The films prepared by the IPA process showed a lower crystallization temperature and better optical transmittance.
Si delta-doping in the GaN layer has been successfully demonstrated by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition at a growth temperature of 1040°C. Si delta-doping concentration increases and then decreases with an increase in delta-doping time. This indicates that delta-doping concentration is limited by the desorption process owing to much higher thermal decomposition efficiency of silane at high growth temperatures of GaN. In addition, it was observed that the use of a post-purge step in the ammonia ambient reduces Si delta-doping concentration. From capacitance-voltage measurement, a sharp carrier concentration profile with a full-width at half maximum of 4.1 nm has been achieved with a high peak concentration of 9.8 x 1018 cm-3
Selectively absorbing properties of indium tin oxide(ITO) thin film were
characterized in UV-VIS-NIR wavelength regions. Sodium diffusion from glass
pane had a bad influences on the properties of ITO layers. So
silica-zirconia barrier layers were formed by sol gel dip coating. ITO films
on buffer layered glass pane were formed by sol gel dip coating.
Transmittance and reflectivity dependence on the thickness of barrier layer
and ITO coating layers were studied by measuring sheet resistance and
Transparency at 550 nm wavelegth and selective reflectivities were important
to apply to passive solar collectors. In single barrier layer and six-fold
ITO coated films, good selectivities were obtained. Homogeneity of indium
tin precursor coating solution was important. Atmosphere condition
(humidity, temperature), dip and drawing conditions were also additional
factors for uniformity of films.
High quality lead titanate thin films were fabricated by spin coating on a silicon substrate. The resulting dried gel layers were uniform in thickness through 2 ' area, and polycrystalline perovskite structures developed almost crack free with a heat treatment above 500°C in films with thickness above 0.36μm.
Metastable pyrochlore structures were observed in films with thickness of 0.16,μm when heat treated at 500 and 600 °C. But these structure did not appear in films with thickness of 0.36μm.The thickness dependencein crystal structure of films was studied by varing the substrate condition and analyzing the interface between the.film and. substrate. In native oxide films on silicon substrates, amorphous dried gel layers were heterogeneously nucleated. Metastable cubic pyrochlore structure could be crystallized in amorphous native oxide (cubic property in random network structure).