The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the CSN1S1 locus polymorphism on 305-d records of milk, fat, protein, lactose and total solids yields, fat, protein, lactose and total solids contents in Mexican dairy goats. A total of 514 lactation records belonging to Alpine (n=60), Saanen (n=105) and Toggenburg (n=74) goats, born from 2003 to 2006 in three herds were used. Discrimination between alleles E, F, N, A* (CSN1S1 A, G, H, I, O1 and O2) and B* (CSN1S1 B1, B2, B3, B4, C and L) were made by amplification of fragments of the gene CSN1S1 and digestion with the restriction endonuclease XmnI. In order to estimate additive and dominance effects, data sets including (1) all genotypes, and (2) only homozygote genotypes, were analysed using linear mixed models. The allele A*, had significant additive effects for protein content (0·21±0·07%; P=0·002) and total solids content (0·66±0·23%; P=0·005) when compared with allele F. An unfavourable additive effect of allele A* on milk yield was found in the Alpine breed (−81·4±40·2; P=0·046) when compared with allele F. Favourable dominance effects were found for some genotypes (P<0·05) for milk yield (A*N and B*N), fat yield (A*N and B*E), protein yield (A*N and B*E), lactose yield (A*N) and total solids yield (A*N). Also, unfavourable dominance effects were found (P<0·05) for protein content (A*B* and A*N) and total solids content (A*B*, A*N, and A*F). Allele A* was the only one with a positive effect for protein content. Significant allele-year interaction effects were also observed. The presence of significant dominance effects, estimated between specific pairs of alleles, challenged the purely additive nature of the genetic effect at the CSN1S1 locus. Implications from use of CSN1S1 effects in goat breeding programmes are presented.