We investigated the modern distribution of fossil midges within a dimictic lake and explored downcore patterns of inferred lake depths over the last 2000 years from previously published proxies. Modern midge distribution within Gall Lake showed a consistent and predictable pattern related to the lake-depth gradient with recognizable assemblages characteristic of shallow-water, mid-depth and profundal environments. Interpretations of downcore changes in midge assemblages, in conjunction with quantitative lake-depth inferences across a priori defined (based on diatom data) ~ 500-yr wet and dry periods, demonstrated that both invertebrate and algal assemblages exhibited similar timing and nature of ecological responses. Midges were quantified by their relative abundance, concentrations and an index of Chaoborus to chironomids, and all showed the greatest differences between the wet and dry periods. During the low lake-level period of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA: AD 900 to 1400), profundal chironomids declined, shallow-water and mid-depth chironomids increased, chironomid-inferred lake level declined and the Chaoborus-to-chironomid index decreased. The coherence between multiple trophic levels provides strong evidence of lower lake levels in Gall Lake during the MCA.