Three-dimensional (3D) wafer-level integration is receiving increased attention with various wafer bonding approaches being evaluated. Recently, we explored an alternative lowtemperature Ti/Si-based wafer bonding, in which an oxidized silicon wafer was successfully bonded with a prime silicon wafer at 400°C using 30 nm sputtered Ti as adhesive. The bonded pairs show excellent bonding uniformity and mechanical integrity. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was applied to confirm the interdiffusion occurred in the interlayer. The bonding interface was examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) assisted with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) elemental mapping and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Characterization of the bonding interface indicates the strong adhesion achieved is attributed to an amorphous layer formed by interdiffusion of Si and oxygen into Ti interlayer and the unique ability to reduce native oxide (SiO2) by Ti even at low temperatures.