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We report on the effect of sample non-uniformity on the results of Hall-effect measurements. False positive Hall coefficients were obtained from an evidently n-type ZnO single crystal, although four electrodes with low contact resistance were made and the Van der Pauw parameter for this electrode configuration was close to 1.00. Further position-sensitive characterization revealed that the false positive Hall coefficient was due to non-uniform electrical properties of the sample. To demonstrate a false positive sign of the Hall coefficient due to sample non-uniformity, we devised a model structure made from evident n-type ZnO thin film and successfully reproduced a false positive Hall coefficient from n-type ZnO.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) films doped with aluminum (Al) were deposited with a pulsed laser deposition technique to characterize the charge compensation phenomena in ZnO. In particular, oxygen radical (O*) irradiation during film deposition was used to modify the oxygen stoichiometry. Irradiation with O* decreased electron concentration in Al-doped ZnO. The lattice parameter of the resultant films also varied with the growth conditions. However, no obvious correlation between electron concentration and lattice parameter was found. The self-diffusion coefficients indicated the presence of non-equilibrium defects. The properties of the films are discussed from the viewpoint of non-equilibrium compensated defects detected in the diffusion measurements.
Defect structures in ZnO thin films were studied to clarify the mechanism of charge compensation and crystallinity degradation induced by alloying. Regarding the undoped ZnO films, it was indicated that the degree of non-equilibrium behavior in the films deposited by PLD was much less than in the films prepared by the other two methods, i.e., MBE and sputtering, and, moreover, the solid-state diffusion behavior in the PLD-grown undoped ZnO was close to that of bulk ZnO. The heavily Al-doped films and alloy films with high concentrations of MgO exhibited significant non-equilibrium behavior, even for those prepared by PLD. It was indicated that the high concentration of extrinsic elements, e.g., Al and Mg, introduces non-equilibrium defects into ZnO films and those defects are the cause of the crystallinity degradation and thermal instability of the films.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) single crystals were grown by the hydrothermal method using lithium and potassium hydroxide as mineralizer and properties of the grown crystals were characterized from the viewpoints of epitaxial wafer applications. The growth sector dependence of impurity and defect concentrations were characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and photoluminescence. As a result, it was clearly shown that defect and impurity distribution in the obtained crystal was anisotropic, and this anisotropy is affected by the choice of the seed crystal shape and growth direction. Annealing effect on flatness of the wafer surface was also examined, and it was found that high temperature annealing with flat single crystalline cover is appropriate for removal of scratch and formation of atomically flat surface. Moreover, we show the possible miss-evaluation of Hall coefficient of ZnO due to anisotropy in defects and impurities distributions.
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