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Dialectical theology is a term widely used to refer to the theology associated with the journal Zwischen den Zeiten (ZZ), which ran between 1923 and 1933. Early observers identified Karl Barth and Friedrich Gogarten as the leaders of the movement, along with Barth's friend Eduard Thurneysen. This chapter concentrates on the movement from Barth's first Romans commentary in 1919 to the collapse of ZZ in 1933, and discusses Barth's 1916 paper: The Strange New World within the Bible. It highlights five major dimensions of the use of the Bible by Barth and the ZZ contributors. The emphasis on the presence of God in Scripture is bound up with the priority of eschatology in the exegesis of dialectical theology. Dialectical theology came to an end in 1933 with ferocious attacks by Barth on Gogarten and on Emil Brunner. It remains to be seen how the passionate advocacy of Scripture as the unique form of divine revelation will fare.
The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a global pest of cruciferous crops (Brassicaceae). It has developed resistance to virtually all known insecticides, and biological control has become an important management tool. In North America the parasitoid Diadegma insulare (Cresson) has been used successfully to reduce diamondback moth populations. We document the presence of the α-proteobacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia and its associated bacteriophage WO in P. xylostella and D. insulare and examine the phylogenetic relationships of Wolbachia and WO in both host species. Our results suggest that Wolbachia and WO have been horizontally transferred in this insect–parasitoid system in recent evolutionary history. Knowledge of the dynamics of Wolbachia in P. xylostella and D. insulare may be an important factor in future control of this pest in the field.
Herbert McCabe warns us off thinking that we need to get our ideas of God right before we establish whether or not to pray. It is the other way round, he says: The “way we understand God is as 'whatever makes sense of prayer.'” This seems to be borne out in the negative, too; making no sense of prayer, because of logical, empirical, or moral objections, involves bewilderment at the idea or worship of God. No account of prayer entirely makes sense of it, but the ways of not making sense, and the conclusions drawn from these ways, vary greatly. Philosophers and theologians have many different views, for example, on the point or pointlessness of prayer. We survey five ways of making and not making sense of prayer, turning on the question, “what is its point?” / 1. Communing with God / Most accounts of prayer situate it within the context of relationship with God; its point being to commune with God. This is so of all the positions surveyed subsequently, except for atheist positions and those that see prayer only as expedient to moral training.
A current emphasis in theological anthropology is that we become persons through our relations to others. Ethically valuable and pastorally illuminating insights that as persons we develop in relation to others have been used wrongly to underpin the claim that personhood is relational — a claim which is logically confused and ethically precarious. Alistair I. McFadyen, whose book The Call to Personhood has been influential in this respect, describes personhood as the ‘sedimentation’ of interpersonal relations. Elaine L. Graham places the stress on cultural interaction as a prerequisite for the development of beings into persons. In her study of gender and personhood, Making the Difference, Graham argues that her ‘relational’ account of gender is ‘suggestive of a model of human nature as profoundly relational, requiring the agency of culture to bring our personhood fully into being’. The potential ethical danger behind a view of personhood as relational is apparent from statements made by Vincent Brümmer in his volume The Model of Love, to the effect that ‘both our identity and our value as persons is constituted by our relations of fellowship with others’.