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To further understandings of household food insecurity in First Nations communities in Canada and its relationship with obesity.
Analysis of a cross-sectional dataset from the First Nations Food, Nutrition and Environment Study representative of First Nations communities south of the 60th parallel. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between food insecurity and sociodemographic factors, as well as the odds of obesity among food-insecure households adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics.
Western and Central Canada.
First Nations peoples aged ≥19 years.
Forty-six percent of First Nations households experienced food insecurity. Food insecurity was highest for respondents who received social assistance; had ≤10 years of education; were female; had children in the household; were 19–30 years old; resided in Alberta; and had no year-round road access into the community. Rates of obesity were highest for respondents residing in marginally food-insecure households (female 56·6 %; male 54·6 %). In gender-specific analyses, the odds of obesity were highest among marginally food-insecure households in comparison with food-secure households, for both female (OR 1·57) and male (OR 1·57) respondents, adjusting for sociodemographic variables. For males only, those in severely food-insecure (compared with food-secure) households had lower odds of obesity after adjusting for confounding (OR 0·56).
The interrelated challenges of food insecurity and obesity in First Nations communities emphasise the need for Indigenous-led, culturally appropriate and food sovereign approaches to food security and nutrition in support of holistic wellness and prevention of chronic disease.
To describe seafood consumption patterns in First Nations (FN) in British Columbia (BC) and examine lifestyle characteristics associated with seafood consumption; to identify the top ten most consumed seafood species and their contributions to EPA and DHA intake; and to estimate dietary exposure to methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene.
Dietary and lifestyle data from the First Nations Food Nutrition and Environment Study, a cross-sectional study of 1103 FN living in twenty-one communities across eight ecozones in BC, Canada, were analysed. Seafood consumption was estimated using a traditional FFQ. Seafood samples were analysed for contaminant contents.
Seafood consumption patterns varied significantly across BC ecozones reflecting geographical diversity of seafood species. The top ten most consumed species represented 64 % of total seafood consumption by weight and contributed 69 % to the total EPA+DHA intake. Mean EPA+DHA intake was 660·5 mg/d in males, 404·3 mg/d in females; and 28 % of FN met the Recommended Intake (RI) of 500 mg/d. Salmon was the most preferred species. Seafood consumption was associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption, lower smoking rate and increased physical activity. Dietary exposure to selected contaminants from seafood was negligible.
In FN in BC, seafood continues to be an essential part of the contemporary diet. Seafood contributed significantly to reaching the RI for EPA+DHA and was associated with a healthier lifestyle. Given numerous health benefits, seafood should be promoted in FN. Efforts towards sustainability of fishing should be directed to maintain and improve access to fisheries for FN.
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