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There is limited literature on associations between inflammatory tone and response to sequential pharmacotherapies in major depressive disorder (MDD).
In a 16-week open-label clinical trial, 211 participants with MDD were treated with escitalopram 10–20 mg daily for 8 weeks. Responders continued escitalopram while non-responders received adjunctive aripiprazole 2–10 mg daily for 8 weeks. Plasma levels of pro-inflammatory markers—C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, interferon-gamma (IFN)-Γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and Chemokine C–C motif ligand-2 (CCL-2)—measured at baseline, and after 2, 8 and 16 weeks were included in logistic regression analyzes to assess associations between inflammatory markers and treatment response.
Pre-treatment IFN-Γ and CCL-2 levels were significantly associated with a lower of odds of response to escitalopram at 8 weeks. Increases in CCL-2 levels from weeks 8 to 16 in escitalopram non-responders were significantly associated with higher odds of non-response to adjunctive aripiprazole at week 16.
Higher pre-treatment levels of IFN-Γ and CCL-2 were associated with non-response to escitalopram. Increasing levels of these pro-inflammatory markers may be associated with non-response to adjunctive aripiprazole. These findings require validation in independent clinical populations.
To investigate the relationship between lean muscle mass and treatment response in treatment-resistant late-life depression (TR-LLD). We hypothesized that lower lean muscle mass would be associated with older age, higher physical comorbidities, higher depressive symptom severity, and poorer treatment response.
Secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Three academic hospitals in the United States and Canada.
Adults aged 60+ years with major depressive disorder who did not remit following open treatment with venlafaxine extended-release (XR) (n = 178).
We estimated lean muscle mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans prior to and following randomized treatment with aripiprazole or placebo added to venlafaxine XR. Multivariate regressions estimated influence of demographic and clinical factors on baseline lean muscle mass, and whether baseline lean muscle mass was associated with treatment response, adjusted for treatment arm.
Low lean muscle mass was present in 22 (12.4%) participants. Older age and female sex, but not depressive symptom severity, were independently associated with lower lean muscle mass at baseline. Marital status, baseline depressive symptom severity, and treatment group were associated with improvement of depressive symptoms in the randomized treatment phase. Baseline lean muscle mass was not associated with improvement, regardless of treatment group.
As expected, older age and female sex were associated with lower lean muscle mass in TR-LLD. However, contrary to prior results in LLD, lean muscle mass was not associated with depression severity or outcome. This suggests that aripiprazole augmentation may be useful for TR-LLD, even in the presence of anomalous body composition.
The performance of passive microwave sea-ice concentration products in the marginal ice zone and at the ice edge draws much attention in accuracy assessments. In this study, we generated 917 pseudo-ship observations from four Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images based on the Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate (ASPeCt) protocol to assess the quality of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) ARTIST (Arctic Radiation and Turbulence Interaction STudy) Sea Ice (ASI) concentrations at the ice edge in Antarctica. The results indicate that the ASI pixels in the pseudo-ASPeCt observations have a mean ice concentration of 13% and are significantly different from the well-established 15% threshold. The average distance between the pseudo-ice edge and the 15% threshold contour is ~10 km. The correlation between the sea-ice concentration (SIC), SICASI and SICMODIS values at the ice edge was considerably lower than the high coefficients obtained from a transect analysis. Underestimation of SICASI occurred in summer, whereas no clear bias was observed in winter. The proposed method provides an opportunity to generate a new source of reference data in which the spatial coverage is wider and more flexible than in traditional in situ observations.
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