The inaugural Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacologicum (CINP) Think Tank, a small open meeting sponsored by the CINP, discussed impediments to developing new drugs for psychiatric disorders and approaches to overcome these impediments. Whilst neuropsycharmacology has a rich pharmacopeia (current treatments benefiting many individuals), issues of treatment resistance, sub-optimal response and unwanted side effects remain problematic. Many scientific, economic and social issues are impeding the development of drugs (e.g. higher risk of failure, placebo effects, problematic regulatory environments, pressures imposed by patent protection, downward pressure on reimbursements and financial, legal and social risk aversion). A consensus of the meeting was that efforts to understanding the core pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders are fundamental to increasing the chance of developing new drugs. However, findings from disorders such as Huntington's chorea, have shown that knowing the cause of a disorder may not reveal new drug targets. By contrast, clinically useful biomarkers that define target populations for new drugs and models that allow findings to be accurately translated from animals to humans will increase the likelihood of developing new drugs. In addition, a greater accent on experimental medicine, creative clinical investigations and improved communication between preclinical neuropsychopharmacologists, clinicians committed to neuropsychopharmacological research, industry and the regulators would also be a driver to the development of new treatments. Finally, it was agreed that the CINP must continue its role as a conduit facilitating vibrant interactions between industry and academia as such communications are a central component in identifying new drug targets, developing new drugs and transitioning new drugs into the clinic.