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This study examined the associations between accelerometer-derived sedentary time (ST), lower intensity physical activity (LPA), higher intensity physical activity (HPA) and the incidence of depressive symptoms over 4 years of follow-up.
We included 2082 participants from The Maastricht Study (mean ± s.d. age 60.1 ± 8.0 years; 51.2% men) without depressive symptoms at baseline. ST, LPA and HPA were measured with the ActivPAL3 activity monitor. Depressive symptoms were measured annually over 4 years of follow-up with the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Cox regression analysis was performed to examine the associations between ST, LPA, HPA and incident depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ⩾ 10). Analyses were adjusted for total waking time per day, age, sex, education level, type 2 diabetes mellitus, body mass index, total energy intake, smoking status and alcohol use.
During 7812.81 person-years of follow-up, 203 (9.8%) participants developed incident depressive symptoms. No significant associations [Hazard Ratio (95% confidence interval)] were found between sex-specific tertiles of ST (lowest v. highest tertile) [1.13 (0.76–1.66], or HPA (highest v. lowest tertile) [1.14 (0.78–1.69)] and incident depressive symptoms. LPA (highest v. lowest tertile) was statistically significantly associated with incident depressive symptoms in women [1.98 (1.19–3.29)], but not in men (p-interaction <0.01).
We did not observe an association between ST or HPA and incident depressive symptoms. Lower levels of daily LPA were associated with an increased risk of incident depressive symptoms in women. Future research is needed to investigate accelerometer-derived measured physical activity and ST with incident depressive symptoms, preferably stratified by sex.
This chapter reports results on spontaneous brain activity during wakeful rest. It focuses on findings obtained with electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), either acquired separately or simultaneously. The chapter discusses two approaches to analyze resting state activity with fMRI, namely reverse subtraction (activity correlated with task deactivation) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based region analysis. A third way to explore resting state blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity is to add information obtained with independent recording modalities, in particular EEG. When EEG and fMRI are recorded simultaneously, fMRI activity patterns associated with EEG-defined brain states can be analyzed. Relaxed wakefulness in the EEG is characterized by alpha and beta band oscillations. A thorough analysis of EEG and fMRI patterns during wakeful rest yields a complex relationship where certain EEG patterns can be associated with different BOLD maps and vice versa.
This chapter discusses the three domains of cognition for which the effects of sleepiness are reasonably well understood: attention and vigilance, executive functioning, and learning and memory. It investigates the effects of sleepiness on distinct cognitive processes involved in the performance of cognitive tasks. Sleepiness due to sleep loss or circadian misalignment causes an increase of average reaction times in vigilance and reaction time tasks. Sleepiness has the potential to alter emotional states and bias the interpretation of the emotional context of a situation, and may thereby influence decision-making. Memory encoding, or the conversion of sensory input into a neural representation, appears to be adversely affected by lack of prior sleep. Sleepiness may affect these cognitive processes differentially, so that the effects of sleepiness depend on the ensemble of cognitive processes required to perform the task at hand.