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Since its beginnings as a subdiscipline of psychology (e.g., Allport, 1937; Shand, 1914), personality psychologists have pursued two different, though related goals (see e.g., Cervone, 2005; Mischel & Shoda, 1998). The first goal is to construct a general theory of the person, understood as the integrated whole of the several subsystems of the mind. The second goal is to describe and explain the important psychological differences between individuals, that is, those relatively stable psychological attributes of individuals that allow us to uniquely characterize them and to distinguish them from each other. Most psychologists would agree that the emotion system is a central subsystem of personality, and that interindividual differences traceable to this system are important for describing individuals. However, if one accepts this, then it follows immediately that, to attain its goals, personality psychology must consider the emotions. In accordance with this conclusion, (1) most classical personality theorists proposed an affective (or affective–motivational) system as a core system of the mind (see, e.g., Shand, 1914; Murray, 1938), and emotions also play a prominent role in recent theories of personality (e.g., Mischel & Shoda, 1995). Furthermore, (2) most taxonomic models of stable and general (transsituational) psychological dispositions (usually called personality traits) include a subset of dispositions that refer directly or indirectly to emotions (see the second part of this chapter). Nonetheless, the in-depth investigation of emotions from a personality perspective has only begun comparatively recently, in the wake of an upsurge of interest in emotions that arose in the 1980s and continues to this day. Since that time, the previously largely separate fields of personality psychology and emotion psychology – the latter being the subdiscipline of psychology that studies emotions – are becoming increasingly integrated, to the benefit of both fields.
An efficient and robust method to measure vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D2 in dried blood spots (DBS) has been developed and applied in the pan-European multi-centre, internet-based, personalised nutrition intervention study Food4Me. The method includes calibration with blood containing endogenous 25(OH)D3, spotted as DBS and corrected for haematocrit content. The methodology was validated following international standards. The performance characteristics did not reach those of the current gold standard liquid chromatography-MS/MS in plasma for all parameters, but were found to be very suitable for status-level determination under field conditions. DBS sample quality was very high, and 3778 measurements of 25(OH)D3 were obtained from 1465 participants. The study centre and the season within the study centre were very good predictors of 25(OH)D3 levels (P<0·001 for each case). Seasonal effects were modelled by fitting a sine function with a minimum 25(OH)D3 level on 20 January and a maximum on 21 July. The seasonal amplitude varied from centre to centre. The largest difference between winter and summer levels was found in Germany and the smallest in Poland. The model was cross-validated to determine the consistency of the predictions and the performance of the DBS method. The Pearson’s correlation between the measured values and the predicted values was r 0·65, and the sd of their differences was 21·2 nmol/l. This includes the analytical variation and the biological variation within subjects. Overall, DBS obtained by unsupervised sampling of the participants at home was a viable methodology for obtaining vitamin D status information in a large nutritional study.
Background: Self-regulatory executive function theory (Wells and Matthews, 1994; Wells, 2008) stresses the role of metacognitions in the development of emotional disorders. Within this metacognitive model, positive beliefs about ruminative thinking are thought to be a risk factor for engaging in rumination and subsequently for depression. However, most of the existing research relies on retrospective self-report trait measures. Aims: The aim of the present study was to examine the theory's predictions with an Ecological Momentary Assessment approach capturing rumination as it occurs in daily life. Method: Non-clinical participants (N = 93) were equipped with electronic diaries and completed four signal-contingent momentary self-reports per day for 4 weeks. A multilevel mediation model was computed to examine associations between positive beliefs about rumination and ruminative thinking and negative affect in daily life. Results: Positive beliefs about rumination were significantly associated with ruminative thinking as it occurs in daily life. We further found evidence for a negative association with positive affect that was completely mediated via ruminative thinking in daily life occurring in response to negative emotions. Conclusions: Our results add ecologically valid corroborating evidence for the metacognitive model of emotional disorders within the framework of self-regulatory executive function theory.