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The incidence of infections from extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E) is increasing in the United States. We describe the epidemiology of ESBL-E at 5 Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites.
During October–December 2017, we piloted active laboratory- and population-based (New York, New Mexico, Tennessee) or sentinel (Colorado, Georgia) ESBL-E surveillance. An incident case was the first isolation from normally sterile body sites or urine of Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae/oxytoca resistant to ≥1 extended-spectrum cephalosporin and nonresistant to all carbapenems tested at a clinical laboratory from a surveillance area resident in a 30-day period. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from medical records. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) performed reference antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing on a convenience sample of case isolates.
We identified 884 incident cases. The estimated annual incidence in sites conducting population-based surveillance was 199.7 per 100,000 population. Overall, 800 isolates (96%) were from urine, and 790 (89%) were E. coli. Also, 393 cases (47%) were community-associated. Among 136 isolates (15%) tested at the CDC, 122 (90%) met the surveillance definition phenotype; 114 (93%) of 122 were shown to be ESBL producers by clavulanate testing. In total, 111 (97%) of confirmed ESBL producers harbored a blaCTX-M gene. Among ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, 52 (54%) were ST131; 44% of these cases were community associated.
The burden of ESBL-E was high across surveillance sites, with nearly half of cases acquired in the community. EIP has implemented ongoing ESBL-E surveillance to inform prevention efforts, particularly in the community and to watch for the emergence of new ESBL-E strains.
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