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We studied the cumulative incidence of physical illnesses, and the effect of early environmental factors (EEFs) on somatic comorbidity in schizophrenia, in nonschizophrenic psychosis and among nonpsychotic controls from birth up to the age of 50 years.
The sample included 10,933 members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, of whom, 227 had schizophrenia and 205 had nonschizophrenic psychosis. Diagnoses concerning physical illnesses were based on nationwide registers followed up to the end of 2016 and classified into 13 illness categories. Maternal education and age, family type at birth and paternal socioeconomic status were studied as EEFs of somatic illnesses.
When adjusted by gender and education, individuals and especially women with nonschizophrenic psychosis had higher risk of morbidity in almost all somatic illness categories compared to controls, and in some categories, compared to individuals with schizophrenia. The statistically significant adjusted hazard ratios varied from 1.27 to 2.42 in nonschizophrenic psychosis. Regarding EEFs, single-parent family as the family type at birth was a risk factor for a higher somatic score among men with schizophrenia and women with nonschizophrenic psychosis. Maternal age over 35 years was associated with lower somatic score among women with nonschizophrenic psychosis.
Persons with nonschizophrenic psychoses have higher incidence of somatic diseases compared to people with schizophrenia and nonpsychotic controls, and this should be noted in clinical work. EEFs have mostly weak association with somatic comorbidity in our study.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
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