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Network approach has been applied to a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to identify network structures of remitters and non-remitters in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) at baseline and the 6-month follow-up.
Participants (n = 252) from the Korean Early Psychosis Study (KEPS) were enrolled. They were classified as remitters or non-remitters using Andreasen's criteria. We estimated network structure with 10 symptoms (three symptoms from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, one depressive symptom, and six symptoms related to schema and rumination) as nodes using a Gaussian graphical model. Global and local network metrics were compared within and between the networks over time.
Global network metrics did not differ between the remitters and non-remitters at baseline or 6 months. However, the network structure and nodal strengths associated with positive-self and positive-others scores changed significantly in the remitters over time. Unique central symptoms for remitters and non-remitters were cognitive brooding and negative-self, respectively. The correlation stability coefficients for nodal strength were within the acceptable range.
Our findings indicate that network structure and some nodal strengths were more flexible in remitters. Negative-self could be an important target for therapeutic intervention.
The Sewol ferry disaster is one of the most tragic events in Korea’s modern history. Among the 476 people on board, which included Danwon High School students (324) and teachers (14), 304 passengers died in the disaster (295 recovered corpses and 9 missing) and 172 survived. Of the rescued survivors, 72 were attending Danwon High School, located in Ansan City, and residing in a residence nearby. Because the students were young, emotionally susceptible adolescents, both the government and the parents requested the students be grouped together at a single hospital capable of appropriate psychiatric care. Korea University Ansan Hospital was the logical choice, as the only third-tier university-grade hospital with the necessary faculty and facilities within the residential area of the families of the students. We report the experiences and the lessons learned from the processes of preparing for and managing the surviving young students as a community-based hospital. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:389–393)
The diatoms are an ecologically important group of algae that have been extensively studied by ecologists and taxonomists. However, the large-scale patterns of diatom distribution and the factors underlying this distribution are largely unknown. The aims of this study were to identify the large-scale spatial patterns of benthic diatom assemblages in Korean streams and rivers, and to assess the importance of numerous environmental factors on diatom distribution. We classified 720 study sites based on diatom flora. Benthic diatoms, water chemistry, altitude, and riparian land cover and use were characterized by multivariate analyses, Monte Carlo permutation tests, and indicator species analysis. In total, we identified 531 diatom taxa. Diatom assemblages were mostly dominated by species of the genera Achnanthes, Navicula, Nitzschia, Cocconeis, Fragilaria (Synedra included), Cymbella, Gomphonema, and Melosira. Cluster analysis partitioned all 720 sites into eight groups based on diatom species composition. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that altitude, land cover and use, current velocity, electrical conductivity, and nutrient levels explained a significant amount of the variation in the composition of assemblages of benthic diatoms. At the national scale, a downstream ecological gradient was apparent, from fast-flowing, mostly oligotrophic highland streams to slow-flowing, mostly eutrophic lowland rivers. Our data suggest that spatial factors explain some of the variation in diatom distribution. The present investigation of the spatial patterns of benthic diatoms, the ecological determinants of diatom occurrence, and the identification of diatom indicator species contributes to development of a program for assessing the biological integrity of lotic ecosystems in Korea.
Anthropogenic land use within watersheds has substantial effects on aquatic habitats and biological communities. From September 2006 to December 2008, we investigated the effects of land use on benthic macroinvertebrate communities by comparing Song Stream and Odae Stream, two adjacent mountain streams in Korea whose watersheds have different land use patterns. Song Stream is significantly disturbed by agricultural activities in the watershed, whereas Odae Stream is relatively undisturbed and is surrounded by a well-conserved forest area. Song Stream had significantly higher levels of all nutrients and sediment-related factors due to the adjacent agricultural area. As a result, Song Stream had markedly lower species community indices, such as taxa richness and abundance. In Song Stream, macroinvertebrate scrapers and predators were most adversely affected, whereas collector-gatherers became a dominant group. Based on correlation and multivariate analyses, total dissolved solids had the strongest negative relationship with macroinvertebrate assemblages, followed by electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, and pH. The proportion of cobble in stream substrate was positively related to the richness and abundance of macroinvertebrates. Our results indicate that disturbances caused by agricultural land use, particularly sand deposition, had significant adverse effects on macroinvertebrate habitats and on the biotic integrity of benthic macroinvertebrate communities.
The sap of Acer mono has been called ‘bone-benefit-water’ in Korea because of its mineral and sugar content. In particular, the calcium concentration of the sap of A. mono is 37·5 times higher than commercial spring water. In the current study, we examined whether A. mono sap could improve or prevent osteoporosis-like symptoms in a mouse model. Male mice (3 weeks old) were fed a low-calcium diet supplemented with 25, 50 or 100 % A. mono sap, commercial spring water or a high calcium-containing solution as a beverage for 7 weeks. There were no differences in weekly weight gain and food intake among all the groups. Mice that were given a low-calcium diet supplemented with commercial spring water developed osteoporosis-like symptoms. To assess the effect of sap on osteoporosis-like symptoms, we examined serum calcium concentration, and femur density and length, and carried out a histological examination. Serum calcium levels were significantly lower in mice that received a low-calcium diet supplemented with commercial spring water (the negative control group), and in the 25 % sap group compared to mice fed a normal diet, but were normal in the 50 and 100 % sap and high-calcium solution groups. Femur density and length were significantly reduced in the negative control and 25 % sap groups. These results indicate that a 50 % sap solution can mitigate osteoporosis-like symptoms induced by a low-calcium diet. We also examined the regulation of expression of calcium-processing genes in the duodenum and kidney. Duodenal TRPV6 and renal calbindin-D9k were up-regulated dose-dependently by sap, and the levels of these factors were higher than those attained in the spring water-treated control. The results demonstrate that the sap of A. mono ameliorates the low bone density induced by a low-calcium diet, most likely by increasing calcium ion absorption.
The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT) in evaluating cervical lymph node metastasis of head and neck cancer. Histopathologic results of 166 cervical lymph node levels in 31 neck-dissected patients were compared with pre-operative CT and 99mTc-MIBI SPECT findings about cervical lymph node metastasis, retrospectively. Sensitivity, specificity and predictability of CT and 99mTc-MIBI SPECT were 68.2, 93.1 and 89.8 per cent and 59.1, 87.5 and 83.7 per cent, respectively. When analysing CT and99mTc-MIBI SPECT together, sensitivity and specificity were 86.4 and 99.3 per cent, respectively. The combined use of 99mTc-MIBI SPECT and CT could increase the accuracy of cervical lymph node metastases detection, compared with separate use of either 99mTc-MIBI SPECT or CT.
Microwave chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) is utilized to deposit nanocrystalline silicon (nc-si) thin films onto a variety of substrates for application to thin film transistors (TFT's) and solar cells. It is especially important to gain reproducible control of the processing. Thus, an in-situ mass spectrometer (MS) records the plasma conditions with variation of process conditions such as gas selection, pressures, partial pressures, and substrate temperature. These data are correlated with electrical and optical properties of the films. Raman spectra show a FWHM of 11/cm with position at 522/cm as desired for crystalline Si. Typical film thickness is 100nm with grain size of 20-30 nm, using standard deposition, and 50-80 nm when the substrate is intensely optically illuminated during deposition, called photon assist (PA). Hydrogen dilution serves to increase the crystallinity of the films. The ratio of photo-to dark conductivity exceeds 10+5 with dark conductivity as low as 1.5 × 10-10 S/cm. Thin film transistors have been fabricated with Ion/Ioff of 10+7. Hetrojunction solar cells were fabricated using amorphous Si/ nc-Si/ crystlline Si giving a conversion efficiency of above 10.5%, without an antireflection coating. The use of MS in device design will be emphasized.
ECR silane plasmas for the deposition of a-Si:H and μc-Si films were investigated by in-situ mass spectroscopy (MS) using a quadrupole residual gas analyzer. The results showed that the intensities of ionic and neutral species (H, H2, He, Ar, Si and SiHx) in the 2 % SiH4/He plasma are strongly dependent on the deposition conditions such as chamber pressure, input power and hydrogen dilution. In all cases, the prevalence of Si ions was observed over SiH, SiH2 and SiH3 ions, suggesting a high decomposition rate of the silane in the plasma. In particular, the population of atomic hydrogen in the plasma seems to play a key role in the properties of both a-Si:H and μc-Si films. For example, the increased intensity of atomic hydrogen, compared to that of molecular hydrogen, resulted in the better quality a-Si:H film, showing a higher photo and dark conductivity ratio of ~105. The intensity of the hydrogen species was especially sensitive to the chamber pressure. The correlation between MS spectra and film properties is presented.
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