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We evaluated the ability of an ultraviolet-C (UV-C) room decontamination device to kill Candida auris and C. albicans. With an organic challenge (fetal calf serum), the UV-C device demonstrated the following log10 reductions for C. auris of 4.57 and for C. albicans of 5.26 with direct line of sight, and log10 reductions for C. auris of 2.41 and for C. ablicans of 3.96 with indirect line of sight.
Background:Candida auris is an emerging fungal pathogen that is often resistant to major classes of antifungal drugs. It is considered a serious global health threat because it has caused severe infections with frequent mortality in over a dozen countries. C. auris can survive on healthcare environmental surfaces for at least 7 days, and it causes outbreaks in healthcare facilities. C. auris has an environmental route of transmission. Thus, infection prevention strategies, such as surface disinfection and room decontamination technologies (eg, ultraviolet [UV-C] light), will be essential to controlling transmission. Unfortunately, data are limited regarding the activity of UV-C to inactivate this pathogen. In this study, a UV-C device was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against C. auris and C. albicans. Methods: We tested the antifungal activity of a single UV-C device using the vegetative bacteria cycle, which delivers a reflected dose of 12,000 µW/cm2. This testing was performed using Formica sheets (7.6 × 7.6 cm; 3 × 3 inches). The carriers were inoculated with C. auris or C. albicans and placed horizontal on the surface or vertical (ie, perpendicular) to the vertical UV-C lamp and at a distance from 1. 2 m (~4 ft) to 2.4 m (~8 ft). Results: Direct UV-C, with or without FCS (log10 reduction 4.57 and 4.45, respectively), exhibited a higher log10 reduction than indirect UV-C for C. auris (log10 reduction 2.41 and 1.96, respectively), which was statistically significant (Fig. 1 and Table 1). For C. albicans, although direct UV-C had a higher log10 reduction (log10 reduction with and without FCS, 5.26 and 5.07, respectively) compared to indirect exposure (log10 reduction with and without FCS, 3.96 and 3.56, respectively), this difference was not statistically significant. The vertical UV had statistically higher log10 reductions than horizontal UV against C. auris and C. albicans with FCS and without FCS. For example, for C. auris with FCS the log10 reduction for vertical surfaces was 4.92 (95% CI 3.79, 6.04) and for horizontal surfaces the log10 reduction was 2.87 (95% CI, 2.36–3.38). Conclusions:C. auris can be inactivated on environmental surfaces by UV-C as long as factors that affect inactivation are optimized (eg, exposure time). These data and other published UV-C data should be used in developing cycle parameters that prevent contaminated surfaces from being a source of acquisition by staff or patients of this globally emerging pathogen.
Background: The contaminated healthcare environment, including operating rooms (ORs), can serve as an important role in transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens. Studies are very limited regarding the level of contamination of ORs during the surgery of a patient on contact precautions and the risk to the next surgery patient after standard room cleaning and disinfection. Objective: Here, we investigated the microbial burden on the OR environment when patients on contact precautions receive surgery, and we assessed the impact of cleaning and disinfection on the contamination of OR environmental sites. Methods: This investigation was conducted in the ORs of an academic facility during an 8-month period. It involved 10 patients on contact precautions for multidrug-resistant pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; n = 7); carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) plus MRSA (n = 2); and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) plus MRSA (n = 1), who underwent surgery. Environmental sampling was performed at the following time points: (1) immediately before the surgical patient’s arrival in the OR, (2) after surgery but before the OR cleaning and disinfection, and (3) after the OR cleaning and disinfection. In total, 1,520 environmental samples collected from 15 OR sites for 10 surgical patients at 3 time points were analyzed. Relatedness among environmental MRSA isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Results: Overall, the mean CFUs of aerobes per Rodac plate (CFU/25 cm2) were 10.1 before patient arrival, 14.7 before cleaning and disinfection, and 6.3 after cleaning and disinfection (P < .0001, after cleaning and disinfection vs before cleaning and disinfection). Moreover, 7 environmental sites (46.7%) after cleaning and disinfection, including bed, arm rest, pyxis counter, floor (near, door side), floor (far, by door), steel counter (small, near bed), and small computer desk, had significantly lower mean counts of aerobes than before patient arrival or before cleaning and disinfection (Fig. 1). The mean CFUs of MRSA per Rodac plate (CFU/25 cm2) were 0.04 before patient arrival, 0.66 before cleaning and disinfection, and 0.08 after cleaning and disinfection (P = .0006, after cleaning and disinfection vs before cleaning and disinfection). Of environmental sites where MRSA was identified, 87.2% were on floors (41 of 47) and 19.1% were after cleaning and disinfection (9 of 47, 8 from floors and 1 from pyxis touchscreen). The A2/B2 MRSA strain was identified on different environmental sites (eg, floor, computer desk, counter) in various rooms (eg, OR2, OR10, and OR16), even after cleaning and disinfection (Fig. 2). Conclusions: Our study has demonstrated that the OR environment was contaminated with aerobic bacteria and MRSA after surgery and that MRSA persisted in the environment even after cleaning and disinfection. Enhanced environmental cleaning in the perioperative environment used for patients on isolation is necessary to prevent transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens in ORs.
Disclosures: Drs. Rutala and Weber are consultants to PDI (Professional Disposable International)
Candida auris is an emerging fungal pathogen that is often resistant to major classes of antifungal drugs. It is considered a serious global health threat because it can cause severe infections with frequent mortality in more than a dozen countries. It can survive on healthcare environmental surfaces for at least 7 days and can cause outbreaks in healthcare facilities. Clearly, infection prevention strategies, such as surface disinfection, will be essential to controlling Candida transmission. Unfortunately, data on the activity of antiseptics and disinfectants used in healthcare to inactivate this pathogen are limited.1–5 In this study, we investigated 12 different disinfectants (ie, 8 low- and intermediate-level disinfectants in 2 dilutions of sodium hypochlorite and 5 high-level disinfectants/chemical sterilants) and 9 antiseptics commonly used in healthcare facilities for their antimicrobial activity against C. auris and C. albicans.
We evaluated the ability of high-intensity visible violet light with a peak output of 405 nm to kill epidemiologically important pathogens. The high irradiant light significantly reduced both vegetative bacteria and spores at some time points over a 72-hour exposure period.
In this prospective study, we monitored 4 epidemiologically important pathogens (EIPs): methicillin-resistane Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), Clostridium difficile, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter to assess the effectiveness of 3 enhanced disinfection strategies for terminal room disinfection against standard practice. Our data demonstrated that a decrease in room contamination with EIPs of 94% was associated with a 35% decrease in subsequent patient colonization and/or infection.
Legislative actions and advanced technologies, particularly dissemination of safety-engineered devices, have aided in protecting healthcare personnel from occupational blood and body fluid exposures (BBFE).
To investigate the trends in BBFE among healthcare personnel over 15 years and the impact of safety-engineered devices on the incidence of percutaneous injuries as well as features of injuries associated with these devices.
Retrospective cohort study at University of North Carolina Hospitals, a tertiary care academic facility. Data on BBFE in healthcare personnel were extracted from Occupational Health Service records (2000–2014). Exposures associated with safety-engineered and conventional devices were compared. Generalized linear models were applied to measure the annual incidence rate difference by exposure type over time.
A total of 4,300 BBFE, including 3,318 percutaneous injuries (77%), were reported. The incidence rate for overall BBFE was significantly reduced during 2000–2014 (incidence rate difference, 1.72; P=.0003). The incidence rate for percutaneous injuries was also dramatically reduced during 2001–2006 (incidence rate difference, 1.37; P=.0079) but was less changed during 2006–2014. Percutaneous injuries associated with safety-engineered devices accounted for 27% of all BBFE. BBFE was most commonly due to injecting through skin, placing intravenous catheters, and blood drawing.
Our study revealed significant overall reduction in BBFE and percutaneous injuries likely due in part to the impact of safety-engineered devices but also identified that a considerable proportion of percutaneous injuries is now associated with these devices. Additional prevention strategies are needed to further reduce percutaneous injuries and improve design of safety-engineered devices.
Targeted surveillance has focused on device-associated infections and surgical site infections (SSIs) and is often limited to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in high-risk areas. Longitudinal trends in all HAIs, including other types of HAIs, and HAIs outside of intensive care units (ICUs) remain unclear. We examined the incidences of all HAIs using comprehensive hospital-wide surveillance over a 12-year period (2001–2012).
This retrospective observational study was conducted at the University of North Carolina (UNC) Hospitals, a tertiary care academic facility. All HAIs, including 5 major infections with 14 specific infection sites as defined using CDC criteria, were ascertained through comprehensive hospital-wide surveillance. Generalized linear models were used to examine the incidence rate difference by infection type over time.
A total of 16,579 HAIs included 6,397 cases in ICUs and 10,182 cases outside ICUs. The incidence of overall HAIs decreased significantly hospital-wide (−3.4 infections per 1,000 patient days), in ICUs (−8.4 infections per 1,000 patient days), and in non-ICU settings (−1.9 infections per 1,000 patient days). The incidences of bloodstream infection, urinary tract infection, and pneumonia in hospital-wide settings decreased significantly, but the incidences of SSI and lower respiratory tract infection remained unchanged. The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) increased remarkably. The outcomes were estimated to include 700 overall HAIs prevented, 40 lives saved, and cost savings in excess of $10 million.
We demonstrated success in reducing overall HAIs over a 12-year period. Our data underscore the necessity for surveillance and infection prevention interventions outside of the ICUs, for non–device-associated HAIs, and for CDI.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(10):1139–1147
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) only contaminated the environmental surfaces of rooms housing CRE colonized/infected patients infrequently (8.4%) and at low levels (average, 5.1 colony-forming units [CFU]/120 cm2 per contaminated surface). Three species of CRE (Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Escherichia) survived poorly (>85% die-off in 24 hours) when ~2 log10 CFU were inoculated onto 5 different environmental surfaces.