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In recent years, a Trigonorhinus sp. (Coleoptera) has caused serious damage to Caragana liouana Zhao Y. Chang and Yakovlev, a major ecological restoration shrub in China. Here, we survey the occurrence and damage pattern of Trigonorhinus sp. and its galls and compare the growth of affected and unaffected plants. Trigonorhinus sp. larvae usually infest the main trunk and lateral branches of the plant, causing the affected branches to become partially swollen and verrucose. Galls develop in stages depending on whether eggs are laid in May or July and proceed in sequence over three years from egg-laying to formation, expansion, dormancy, maturity, dormancy, maturity, and death. Galls inhibit plant development to some extent. On average, six (at least one, and no more than 18; standard error of the mean = 3) larvae occupy each gall, and the number of larvae within a gall did not significantly affect gall size. Gall size significantly affected branch dieback, and large-diameter infested branches had larger galls. This study clarifies the growth dynamics of Trigonorhinus sp. galls and provides a basis for further research into the growth mechanism of the species’ galls.
The effects of early thiamine use on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between early thiamine administration and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with AKI. The data of critically ill patients with AKI within 48 h after ICU admission were extracted from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC III) database. PSM was used to match patients early receiving thiamine treatment to those not early receiving thiamine treatment. The association between early thiamine use and in-hospital mortality due to AKI was determined using a logistic regression model. A total of 15 066 AKI patients were eligible for study inclusion. After propensity score matching (PSM), 734 pairs of patients who did and did not receive thiamine treatment in the early stage were established. Early thiamine use was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (OR 0·65; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·87; P < 0·001) and 90-d mortality (OR 0·58; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·74; P < 0·001), and it was also associated with the recovery of renal function (OR 1·26; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·36; P < 0·001). In the subgroup analysis, early thiamine administration was associated with lower in-hospital mortality in patients with stages 1 to 2 AKI. Early thiamine use was associated with improved short-term survival in critically ill patients with AKI. It was possible beneficial role in patients with stages 1 to 2 AKI according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria.
Influenza is a major human respiratory pathogen. Due to the high levels of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Zhejiang, China, the control and prevention of influenza was challenging during the 2017–2018 season. To identify the clinical spectrum of illness related to influenza and characterise the circulating influenza virus strains during this period, the characteristics of ILI were studied. Viral sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to investigate the virus types, substitutions at the amino acid level and phylogenetic relationships between sequences. This study has shown that the 2017/18 influenza season was characterised by the co-circulation of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, A (H3N2) and B viruses (both Yamagata and Victoria lineage). From week 36 of 2017 to week 12 of 2018, ILI cases accounted for 5.58% of the total number of outpatient and emergency patient visits at the surveillance sites. Several amino acid substitutions were detected. Vaccination mismatch may be a potential reason for the high percentage of ILI. Furthermore, it is likely that multiple viral introductions played a role in the endemic co-circulation of influenza in Zhejiang, China. More detailed information regarding the molecular epidemiology of influenza should be included in long-term influenza surveillance.
This study aims to investigate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission rate in HIV serodiscordant couples, in addition to the relevant influencing factors. From January 1999 to August 2016, patients with HIV/AIDS (index cases) along with their fixed partners were registered and monitored to determine the rate of HIV transmission between couples, as well as relevant influencing factors. A total of 231 HIV-positive couples were investigated, of these, 45-negative (19.48%) partners were infected with HIV via sexual transmission prior to diagnosis of the first case detected in couples. After diagnosis, the transmission rate between spouses was 0.39 per 100 person-years (2/507.7), and the cumulative transmission rate was 1.08% (2/186), which was significantly lower than the transmission rate before diagnosis (χ2 = 35.714, P < 0.001). Among the 119 HIV/AIDS patients who received antiretroviral therapy (ART), the transmission rate was 0 (0/119), whereas the transmission rate was 2.99% (2/67) in HIV/AIDS patients who did not receive ART. In addition, HIV transmission rate in serodiscordant couples was high prior to diagnosis of the index case. However, following diagnosis, the transmission rate was reduced, and the risk of transmission in the index case with antiviral treatment was null. Therefore, a prompt intervention in HIV discordant couples with ART of index case is vital to reduce the risk of HIV transmission.
Background: Radiotherapy with procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine improves overall survival (OS) in patients with 1p19q co-deleted anaplastic oligodendroglioma/anaplastic oligoastrocytoma. Methods: This retrospective analysis investigated outcomes in patients with 1p19q co-deleted/partially deleted oligodendroglioma, oligoastrocytoma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, or anaplastic oligoastrocytoma. OS and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and prognostic factors using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: A total of 106 patients (between December 1997 and December 2013) were included. Median age was 40 years (19-66), 58 were male (55%), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 in 80 patients (75%). 1p19q status was co-deleted in 66 (62%), incompletely co-deleted in 27 (25%), and 1p or 19q loss alone in four (4%) and nine (8%) patients, respectively. Isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 R132H mutation was found in 67 of 85 patients with sufficient material. Upfront treatment was given in 72 (68%) patients and temozolomide alone in 52 (49%). Median time to radiotherapy in 47 patients (44%) was 34.7 months and 41.2 months in 9 patients with co-deleted/incompletely co-deleted anaplastic oligodendroglioma/anaplastic oligoastrocytoma who received upfront temozolomide alone. Median OS was not reached and 5-year OS was 91% for all groups (median follow-up, 5.1 years). On multivariable analysis for all patients, receipt of therapy upfront versus none (p=0.04), PS 1 versus 0 (p<0.001) and 1p19q co-deletion/incomplete deletion versus 1p or 19q loss alone (p=0.005) were prognostic for PFS. Isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 status was not prognostic for PFS. Conclusions: With similar survival patterns in low-grade/anaplastic gliomas, molecular characteristics may be more important than histological grade. Longer follow-up and results of prospective trials are needed for definitive guidance on treatment of these patients.
The vertebrate assemblage from the Early Cretaceous non-marine Xinlong Formation of the Napai Basin, in the south-western part of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (southern China), is reviewed. The assemblage includes chondrichthyans (at least six species of hybodont sharks including Hybodus, Thaiodus, Heteroptychodus and Acrorhizodus), actinopterygians (Halecomorphi and Ginglymodi), turtles (the adocid Shachemys and the carettochelyid Kizylkumemys), crocodilians (cf. Theriosuchus) and dinosaurs (the sauropods Fusuisaurus and Liubangosaurus, carcharodontosaurid and spinosaurid theropods, iguanodontians and a possible psittacosaurid). This assemblage shows many similarities to those from non-marine formations of the Khorat Group of north-eastern Thailand. It seems to be particularly close to that from the Khok Kruat Formation, considered as Aptian in age, as shown especially by sharks and turtles and by the presence of iguanodontians. An Aptian age is therefore proposed for the Xinlong Formation. A study of the stable oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of reptile apatite suggests that this part of South China experienced subtropical arid conditions during the deposition of the Xinlong Formation. In its composition, the vertebrate fauna from the Xinlong Formation seems to be more similar to coeval faunas from SE Asia than to assemblages from northern China (including the Jehol Biota). Although this may partly reflect different depositional and taphonomic environments (fluvial for the Xinlong Formation versus lacustrine for the Jehol Biota) it seems likely that, during Early Cretaceous time, southern China and SE Asia were part of a distinct zoogeographical province, different from that corresponding to northern China. This may be the result of both climatic differences (with relatively cool climates in northern China versus a subtropical climate in the south) and geographical barriers such as mountain chains.
Electropulsing treatment (EPT) has been first applied to the recrystallization of a refractory metal—tungsten (W). We have three major observations: (i) the recrystallization temperature of a rolled pure W under EPT is ∼900 K higher than its conventional recrystallization temperature (1603 K); (ii) the time required for recrystallization is significantly reduced compared with that of conventional heat treatment (CHT); (iii) the recrystallized grains are also much finer than the ones under CHT. Based on quantitative analysis, we conclude that the huge increase of the recrystallization temperature of the rolled pure W under EPT is due to the high heating rate generated by EPT and high activation energy for vacancy diffusion of W, and the accelerated recrystallization and grain refinement have resulted from the coupling of thermal and electromigration effects of EPT at relatively high temperatures.
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