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A target benefit plan (TBP) is a collective defined contribution (DC) plan that is growing in popularity in Canada. Similar to DC plans, TBPs have fixed contribution rates, but they also implement pooling of longevity and investment risk. In this paper, we formulate a multi-period model that incorporates two sources of risk – asset risk and labor income risk for active members. We present an optimal investment and retirement benefits schedule for TBP members with a fixed contribution rate. Using Australian data from 1965 to 2018, we evaluate the performance of the optimal TBP scheme and compare it to the optimal DC scheme. By adopting the benefit–investment strategy derived in this paper, we demonstrate the stability of benefit distribution over time for a TBP scheme in this stochastic formulation. To outperform the DC scheme’s benefit payment, careful consideration shall be given to the benefit target in the TBP scheme. A high target may not be achievable, while a low target can impede the accumulation momentum of the fund’s wealth in its early stages. Moreover, a TBP fund’s investment strategy is primarily influenced by the wealth target, with more aggressive investments in risky assets as the wealth target increases. This analysis may shed light on the possible improvements to retirement planning in Australia. Although the results are sensitive to the choice of model parameters, overall, the proposed TBP promotes system stability in various scenarios.
We discuss simulation of sensitivities or Greeks of multi-asset European style options under a special Lévy process model: that is, the subordinated Brownian motion model. The Malliavin calculus method combined with Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo methods is used in the simulations. Greeks are expressed in terms of the expectations of the option payoff functions multiplied by the weights involving Malliavin derivatives for multi-asset options. Numerical results show that the Malliavin calculus method is usually more efficient than the finite difference method for options with nonsmooth payoffs. The superiority of the former method over the latter is even more significant when both are combined with quasi-Monte Carlo methods.
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