To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The current study aims to confirm the positive effects of dietary nano-Se on nutrients deposition and muscle fibre formation in grass carp fed with high-fat diet (HFD) before overwintering and to reveal its possible molecular mechanism. The lipid deposition, protein synthesis and muscle fibre formation in grass carp fed with regular diet (RD), HFD or HFD supplemented with nano-Se (0·3 or 0·6 mg/kg) for 60 d were tested. Results show that nano-Se significantly reduced lipid content, dripping loss and fibre diameter (P < 0·05), but increased protein content, post-mortem pH24 h and muscle fibre density (P < 0·05) in muscle of grass carp fed with HFD. Notably, dietary nano-Se decreased lipid deposition in the muscle by regulating amp-activated protein kinase activity and increased protein synthesis and fibre formation in muscle by activating target of rapamycin and myogenic determining factors pathways. In summary, dietary nano-Se can regulate the nutrients deposition and muscle fibre formation in grass carp fed with HFD, which exhibit potential benefit for improving flesh quality of grass carp fed with HFD.
A 50-yr resolution reconstruction of climate and environment variability during the period 43–14 ka was developed using 26 high-precision U/Th dates and 390 oxygen isotope (δ18O) data of a stalagmite (SJ1) collected from Songjia Cave in central China, which is close to the northwestern boundary of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM). The δ18O record in SJ1 displays significant millennial-scale changes that correlate well in timing and duration with Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events 5–10 and Heinrich event 4 (H4) identified in high-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Four 230Th dates constrain the H4 event precisely to the period of 39.7 to 38.3 ka. Notable centennial variations of the ASM activity could be observed within the H4 event. The magnitude and duration of D/O event 4.1 recorded in SJ1 are similar to those archived in east China but different from those documented in southwest China, suggesting that the manifestation of this event may be regionally different. The timing, duration and structure of D/O events 5–10 and Heinrich event 4 suggest that temperature changes in both hemispheres have exerted significant influences on the ASM variations in central China.
We present calculation of critical voltage for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with GaN cap layer. The calculation includes mechanical stress and relaxable energy in the GaN/AlGaN barrier layer. Under high voltage conditions, the high electric field results in an increase in stored relaxable energy. If this exceeds a critical value, crystallographic defects are formed. This degradation mechanism is voltage driven and characterized by a critical voltage beyond which non-reversible degradation takes place. The dependence of the GaN cap layer’s thickness on the critical voltage has been discussed. The calculated results indicate that thicker GaN cap layer results in higher critical voltage.
A theoretical study of transconductance characteristics (gm − Vgs profile) of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with a graded AlGaN layer is given in this paper. The calculations were made using a self-consistent solution of the Schrödinger-Poisson equations and an AlGaN/GaN HEMTs numerical device model. Transconductance characteristics of the devices are discussed while the thickness and Al composition of the graded AlGaN layer are optimized. It is found that graded AlGaN layer structure can tailor device’s gm − Vgs profile by improving polar optical phonon mobility and interface roughness mobility. Good agreement is obtained between the theoretical calculations and experimental measurements over the full range of applied gate bias.
Centimetre-level RTK solutions are mainly influenced by satellite orbit errors, ionospheric and tropospheric delays, and measurement noise (including multipath effects). Estimation and mitigation of the main errors for the CM-level Compass RTK solutions over medium-long baselines are investigated. Tests conducted for this research lead to the following conclusions:
1. For 100 km baselines, a 4 cm error in height component will be induced by a 10 m orbit error. For longer baselines, rapid precise ephemeris will be needed for CM-level accuracy RTK solutions.
2. The residual ionospheric delay error can be eliminated using the optimal triple-frequency ionosphere-free linear combination with the coefficients of 2·6087, −0·5175 and −1·0912 respectively for observations on f1, f2 and f3 frequencies. This combination is optimal in terms of its noise level, e.g., the noise is only amplified three times. It can be used for high accuracy RTK positioning.
3. The residual tropospheric delay can be resolved for the introduced relative zenith tropospheric delay (RZTD) parameters.
It is shown that the RTK solutions estimated from the least squares (LS) with the RZTD parameters are worse than that without these parameters. For instance, the errors in the height components are amplified approximately three times, which may be caused by the strong correlation between the introduced RZTD parameters and the height components. However, considering the fact that the residual zenith tropospheric delays vary slowly with time and the variation can be assumed to follow a random walk process, the RTK solutions can be improved using the Kalman filter and a priori information for the RZTD parameters.
The estimation of GPS repeater jamming plays an important role in modern military applications. In this paper, based on the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method, a new approach for the estimation of GPS repeater jamming using Kalman filtering with coloured observation noise is proposed. The state equation and observation equation of the Kalman filter with the coloured observation noise are deduced and the generation process explained. The recursive formula for the Kalman filter used to iteratively filter for the MLE output is also derived. Experimental results show that the new design has a better performance than the MLE; hence it can be used for the precise estimation of repeater jamming signals under the condition that the carrier-to-noise density ratio is below 20 dB-Hz.
Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4/Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (NZO/BST) composites with high permittivity and low loss were synthesized via the hybrid processing route. The composites possess very dense and homogenous microstructure. The NZO/BST composites show good dielectric properties and magnetic properties with low loss in high frequency range. This indicates that this kind of magnetodielectric composites can be used in high-frequency communications for the capacitor-inductor integrating devices such as electromagnetic interference filters and antennas. The permittivities of the composites were also fitted using the combination of Maxwell–Wagner polarization and modified Curie–Weiss law.
Objective: There are few studies of successful aging in China. This study was designed to investigate the distribution, and related factors, of successful aging in an elderly Chinese population.
Methods: A cross-sectional, community-dwelling elderly population was surveyed in Shanghai, China. We defined successful aging based on a multi-dimensional model. Correlates of successful aging were explored through the Shanghai Successful Aging Project Questionnaire, which includes sociodemographic questions, and a battery of standardized instruments, including the Chinese version of the Mini-mental State Examination, activities of daily living, and the Life Satisfaction Index A (LSIA).
Results: The rate of successful aging was 46.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 43.6–48.7] among people aged 65 or above, and the rate for males was higher than that for females. The rate was much lower for those aged 85 years or over (9.4%). Logistic regression analysis suggested that female gender and older age were unfavorable factors for successful aging. A higher score on the LSIA, more leisure activities and being currently married related to successful aging.
Conclusion: The rate of successful aging in Shanghai, China is similar to that found in studies from western countries. There are some potentially modifiable factors that may relate to successful aging.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.