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The aim of this study is to analyse the changing patterns in the transmission of COVID-19 in relation to changes in Vietnamese governmental policies, based on epidemiological data and policy actions in a large Vietnamese province, Bac Ninh, in 2021. Data on confirmed cases from January to December 2021 were collected, together with policy documents. There were three distinct periods of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bac Ninh province during 2021. During the first period, referred to as the ‘Zero-COVID’ period (01/04–07/04/2021), there was a low population vaccination rate, with less than 25% of the population receiving its first vaccine dose. Measures implemented during this period focused on domestic movement restrictions, mask mandates, and screening efforts to control the spread of the virus. The subsequent period, referred to as the ‘Transition’ period (07/05–10/22/2021), witnessed a significant increase in population vaccination coverage, with 80% of the population receiving their first vaccine dose. During this period, several days passed without any reported COVID-19 cases in the community. The local government implemented measures to manage domestic actions and reduce the time spent in quarantine, and encouraged home quarantining for the close contacts of cases with COVID-19. Finally, the ‘New-normal’ stage (10/23–12/31/2021), during which the population vaccination coverage with a second vaccine dose increased to 70%, and most of the mandates for the prevention and control of COVID-19 were reduced. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of governmental policies in managing and controlling the transmission of COVID-19 and provides insights for developing realistic and context-specific strategies in similar settings.
In some languages assertions about ‘somebody’ or ‘nobody’ are existential in a strong sense, i.e. they need or prominently allow an explicit syntactic marker of existence (‘there is’, ‘exist’). This paper presents a state-of-the-art typology of existential indefinite constructions and finds the typological understanding to be inconclusive in many respects. The paper responds to this inconclusiveness with a study of the existential indefinite constructions in four mainland Southeast Asian languages, namely Thai, Lao, Vietnamese, and Khmer. These are languages in which existential indefinite constructions take pride of place, although the typological literature has not acknowledged this. The paper then sketches the implications of the study of the aforementioned languages for typology.
The median duration of hospital stays due to COVID-19 has been reported in several studies on China as 10−13 days. Global studies have indicated that the length of hospitalisation depends on different factors, such as the time elapsed from exposure to symptom onset, and from symptom onset to hospital admission, as well as specificities of the country under study. The goal of this paper is to identify factors associated with the median duration of hospital stays of COVID-19 patients during the second COVID-19 wave that hit Vietnam from 5 March to 8 April 2020.
We used retrospective data on 133 hospitalised patients with COVID-19 recorded over at least two weeks during the study period. The Cox proportional-hazards regression model was applied to determine the potential risk factors associated with length of hospital stay.
There were 65 (48.9%) females, 98 (73.7%) patients 48 years old or younger, 15 (11.3%) persons with comorbidities, 21 (16.0%) severely ill patients and 5 (3.8%) individuals with life-threatening conditions. Eighty-two (61.7%) patients were discharged after testing negative for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, 51 were still in the hospital at the end of the study period and none died. The median duration of stay in a hospital was 21 (IQR: 16–34) days. The multivariable Cox regression model showed that age, residence and sources of contamination were significantly associated with longer duration of hospitalisation.
A close look at how long COVID-19 patients stayed in the hospital could provide an overview of their treatment process in Vietnam, and support the country's National Steering Committee on COVID-19 Prevention and Control in the efficient allocation of resources over the next stages of the COVID-19 prevention period.
Germinated seeds of wild oat populations that were susceptible (S) or resistant (R) to triallate at the recommended soil-applied rate (1.7 kg/ha) were treated with six triallate concentrations on filter paper in petri dishes. Measurement of shoot length 8 d after treatment provided an accurate indication of differences among populations, and was more reliable than determining shoot fresh weight. ED50 values (herbicide concentrations that reduced shoot length by 50% relative to untreated controls), derived from nonlinear regression analysis, indicated four and five levels of response to triallate among eight S and seven R populations, respectively. The ED50 values varied from 0.11 to 11 ppm a.i. triallate for the most susceptible to the most resistant populations, respectively. Routine testing of wild oat samples suspected of resistance, at triallate concentrations of 0.5 or 1 ppm in the petri dish bioassay, effectively identified populations that had become resistant to the recommended soil-applied rate.
A seedling bioassay was used to determine the response of triallate-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) wild oat populations to difenzoquat and EPTC. The bioassay, based on seedling shoot length at 10 d after treatment, provided a reliable and rapid means of determining if wild oat populations were resistant to difenzoquat. Using a bioassay concentration of 15 ppm difenzoquat, it was possible to identify populations that were resistant to the recommended foliar-applied rate (0.85 kg ai/ha). Expected herbicide dosages that reduced shoot length by 50% (ED50) derived from nonlinear regression analysis indicated three and two levels of response to difenzoquat among eight S and seven R populations, respectively, indicating within population variability in their response to difenzoquat. Of the populations tested, none was resistant to EPTC. On the contrary, some R populations had lower ED50 values than did S populations, suggesting an increased sensitivity to EPTC.
Despite high levels of mental illness, Vietnamese youth have limited access to mental health care. Internet interventions, evidence-based psychotherapy treatments delivered through the internet, have the potential to increase access to mental health for youth in Vietnam. This study explored the perceptions of youths and parents toward internet interventions for youth mental health.
Four focus groups were conducted with youths (n = 20) and parents (n = 20) in Danang, Vietnam. The Technology Acceptance Model was used a framework for focus group questions. The data were analyzed using direct content analysis.
Most youths and parents agreed that the internet serves well as a care delivery model. Participants expressed that the web would be useful for psychoeducation and sharing and receiving information with others. Both groups reported lack of awareness of web-based interventions and logistical concerns regarding access as main barriers. In addition, many parents were concerned about internet addiction. Specific adaptations in Vietnam such as standalone internet service centers and partnering with local organizations may benefit uptake of internet interventions.
This study suggests that internet-based programs for youth mental health, particularly interventions incorporating psychoeducation and social networking components, will be well received in Vietnam. Barriers need to be addressed to successfully implement internet-based treatment. Future initiatives should incorporate acceptance models to improve development of internet interventions for youth.
Magnetic nanoparticles FexPd100−x (x = 42, 50, 55, 60, 63) with small size of around 5–10 nm were prepared by sonochemistry from palladium acetate and iron acetate. The compositions x can be controlled by changing the ratio of the above precursor chemicals. Under the effect of annealing at various temperatures from 450 °C to 650 °C, structure change was observed and samples show hard magnetic properties with high coercivity up to 2.1 kOe. Magnetic properties of samples were then systematically discussed in dependence of x and annealing temperatures.
A theoretical analysis of the line broadening of localized atomic transitions in liquid helium is presented. It is shown that accurate information can be derived on the long-range part of the He*-He interaction as well as on the local structure near the He* emitters. The analysis confirms that in corona discharges in liquid helium the emitting He* atoms reside in cavities and that for known He*-He interaction the size of the cavities can be deduced from the line profile. The He*-He interaction was calculated using the full configuration interaction (CI) method as implemented in the Molpro package. The widths of atomic lines due to fluorescent transitions between different excited states of helium atoms were calculated as a function of external pressure in the range from 0.1 and 3.5 MPa using the static approximation method, and the input from the results of the CI calculation and cavity diameters calculated using the bubble model. The calculated widths showed excellent agreement with experimental data of liquid helium excited by corona discharges. A second, analytical analysis using a power function to represent the He*-He interaction showed qualitative agreement with the experimental data.
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