To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The findings regarding the associations between red meat, fish and poultry consumption, and the metabolic syndrome (Mets) have been inconclusive, and evidence from Chinese populations is scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the associations between red meat, fish and poultry consumption, and the prevalence of the Mets and its components among the residents of Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, China. A total of 4424 participants were eligible for the analysis. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI for the prevalence of the Mets and its components according to red meat, fish and poultry consumption. In addition, the data of our cross-sectional study were meta-analysed under a random effects model along with those of published observational studies to generate the summary relative risks (RR) of the associations between the highest v. lowest categories of red meat, fish and poultry consumption and the Mets and its components. In the cross-sectional study, the multivariable-adjusted OR for the highest v. lowest quartiles of consumption was 1·23 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·48) for red meat, 0·83 (95 % CI 0·72, 0·97) for fish and 0·93 (95 % CI 0·74, 1·18) for poultry. In the meta-analysis, the pooled RR for the highest v. lowest categories of consumption was 1·20 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·35) for red meat, 0·88 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·96) for fish and 0·97 (95 % CI 0·85, 1·10) for poultry. The findings of both cross-sectional studies and meta-analyses indicated that the association between fish consumption and the Mets may be partly driven by the inverse association of fish consumption with elevated TAG and reduced HDL-cholesterol and, to a lesser extent, fasting plasma glucose. No clear pattern of associations was observed between red meat or poultry consumption and the components of the Mets. The current findings add weight to the evidence that the Mets may be positively associated with red meat consumption, inversely associated with fish consumption and neutrally associated with poultry consumption.
People with serious mental illness are at great risk of suicide, but little is known about the suicide rates among this population. We aimed to quantify the suicide rates among people with serious mental illness (bipolar disorder, major depression, or schizophrenia).
PubMed and Web of Science were searched to identify studies published from 1 January 1975 to 10 December 2020. We assessed English-language studies for the suicide rates among people with serious mental illness. Random-effects meta-analysis was used. Changes in follow-up time and the suicide rates were presented by a locally weighted scatter-plot smoothing (LOESS) curve. Suicide rate ratio was estimated for assessments of difference in suicide rate by sex.
Of 5014 identified studies, 41 were included in this analysis. The pooled suicide rate was 312.8 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 230.3–406.8). Europe was reported to have the highest pooled suicide rate of 335.2 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 261.5–417.6). Major depression had the highest suicide rate of 534.3 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 30.4–1448.7). There is a downward trend in suicide rate estimates over follow-up time. Excess risk of suicide in males was found [1.90 (95% CI 1.60–2.25)]. The most common suicide method was poisoning [21.9 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 3.7–50.4)].
The suicide rates among people with serious mental illness were high, highlighting the requirements for increasing psychological assessment and monitoring. Further study should focus on region and age differences in suicide among this population.
Between 2015 and 2017, shareholders of one of the three largest shipbuilding companies in Korea and its former auditing firm sued for 210 billion won (approximately 179 million US dollars) in damages over alleged accounting fraud. A total of 1,152 plaintiffs filed more than 70 joint litigation suits instead of bringing a class action suit, without presumably hundreds of thousands of similarly situated victims joining them. After more than ten years since the introduction of class action in securities law, Koreans still seem reluctant to use the mechanism.
In this paper, we investigate the global boundedness, asymptotic stability and pattern formation of predator–prey systems with density-dependent prey-taxis in a two-dimensional bounded domain with Neumann boundary conditions, where the coefficients of motility (diffusiq‘dfdon) and mobility (prey-taxis) of the predator are correlated through a prey density-dependent motility function. We establish the existence of classical solutions with uniform-in time bound and the global stability of the spatially homogeneous prey-only steady states and coexistence steady states under certain conditions on parameters by constructing Lyapunov functionals. With numerical simulations, we further demonstrate that spatially homogeneous time-periodic patterns, stationary spatially inhomogeneous patterns and chaotic spatio-temporal patterns are all possible for the parameters outside the stability regime. We also find from numerical simulations that the temporal dynamics between linearised system and nonlinear systems are quite different, and the prey density-dependent motility function can trigger the pattern formation.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
Nanoporous metals made by dealloying are macroscopic network architectures that can contain ∼1015 nanoscale struts or ligaments per sample. Their mechanical performance is critical to their applications as functional or lightweight high-strength materials. Testing nanoporous metals at the macroscopic scale offers opportunities for unraveling the properties of nanoscale solids in general. The central questions in this area include whether the macroscopic strength and elastic modulus of nanoporous metals can be correlated with the properties of nanoscale ligaments by the classical Gibson–Ashby equations, whether the dealloying-made network structure differs from the conventional foam metals, how network connectivity influences mechanical response, and how ligament size and surface properties affect the elastic and plastic response of nanoscale solids and that of nanoporous metals, particularly the tension–compression asymmetry in strength. This article reviews the fundamental observations of the mechanical response of nanoporous metals with a focus on gold and the emerging understanding of the aforementioned issues.
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate was higher in the group treated with AZD5438 for 4 h than in the groups treated with AZD5438 for 2 or 6 h (42.8% vs. 38.6% and 37.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype. The blastocyst formation rate of PA and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was similar between oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 4 h and those activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h (11.11% vs. 13.40%, P > 0.05). In addition, the level of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) was significantly decreased in oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2) and pluripotency-related genes (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2) were checked by RT-PCR; however, there were no differences between the AZD5438-treated and non-treated control groups. Our results demonstrate that porcine oocyte activation via an EP in combination with AZD5438 treatment can lead to a high blastocyst formation rate in PA and SCNT experiments.
Surface texture was prepared on the ASTM1045 steel substrate before spraying. Three texturing patterns (groove pattern, square pattern, and hexagon pattern) were acquired by laser processing to investigate the influence of texturing patterns on the adhesion strength of sprayed coatings. The Ni60 coatings were prepared on the textured surface by atmosphere plasma spraying technology. Scanning electron microscopy and laser 3D microscope were used to characterize the morphology of texturing. The adhesion strength between coating and substrate was examined by the tensile test. Image pro plus software was used to calculate the contact area ratio of the textured substrate. The results show that the texturing processed substrates by laser radiation present plain area between two dimples and the protrusion around texturing, and the contact area between coating and substrate is increased. The adhesion strength of coatings with a groove pattern, a square pattern, and a hexagon pattern is 58, 33, and 47 MPa, respectively. The adhesion strength of sprayed coatings varies with the change of the texturing pattern, and it does not only depend on the contact area ratio but also on the texturing density and the texturing microstructure.
Early reperfusion therapy in the treatment of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients can improve outcomes. Silent myocardial infarction is associated with poor prognosis, but little is known about its effect on treatment delays. We aimed to characterize STEMI patients presenting without complaints of pain to the emergency departments (EDs) in Singapore.
Retrospective data were requested from the Singapore Myocardial Infarction Registry (SMIR), a national level registry in Singapore. Painless STEMI was defined as the absence of pain (chest, back, shoulder, jaw, and epigastric pain) during ED presentation. The primary outcome was door-to-balloon (D2B) time, defined as the earliest time a patient arrived in the ED to balloon inflation. Secondary outcomes were 1-month and 1-year mortality and occurrence of adverse events.
From January 2010 to December 2012, the SMIR collected 6412 cases; 10.9% of patients presented without any pain. These patients were older (median age =75 v. 58 years old), more likely to be females (39.9% v. 16.1%), Chinese (74.9% v. 62.7%), obese (median body mass index [BMI] =24.5 v. 22.1), and with history of hypertension (71.1% v. 54.6%), diabetes mellitus (48.6% v. 37.0%), and acute myocardial infarction (20.0% v. 12.3%). They had a longer median D2B (80.5 v. 63 minutes, p<0.001) and a higher occurrence of 30-day (38.4% v. 5.7%) and 1-year mortality rates (47.3% v. 8.5%).
A small proportion of STEMI patients presented without any pain to the ED. They tended to have a higher D2B and risks of mortality. Targeted effort is required to improve diagnostic and treatment efficiency in this group.
We investigated the effect of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPS) medium on porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer and bovine in vitro fertilized early blastocysts, in comparison with North Carolina State University (NCSU)-37 medium and in vitro culture (IVC)-II medium. After 2 days of culture, the diameter of the portion of the blastocyst that was extruded from the zona pellucid dramatically differed between porcine blastocysts cultured in hiPS medium and those cultured in NCSU-37 medium (221.47 ± 38.94 μm versus 481.87 ± 40.61 μm, P < 0.01). Moreover, the diameter of the portion of the blastocyst significantly differed between bovine blastocysts cultured in hiPS medium and those cultured in IVC-II medium (150.30 ± 29.49 μm versus 195.58 ± 41.59 μm, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the total number of cells per porcine and bovine blastocyst was more than two-fold higher in blastocysts cultured in hiPS medium than in those cultured in NCSU-37 medium (44.33 ± 5.28 and 143.33 ± 16.05, P < 0.01) or IVC-II medium (172.12 ± 45.08 and 604.83 ± 242.64, P < 0.01), respectively. These results indicate that hiPS medium markedly improves the quality of porcine and bovine blastocysts.
Hyperalgesia often occurs in opioid-induced withdrawal syndrome. In the present study, we found that three hourly injections of DAMGO (a μ-opioid receptor agonist) followed by naloxone administration at the fourth hour significantly decreased rat paw nociceptive threshold, indicating the induction of withdrawal hyperalgesia. Application of NaHS (a hydrogen sulfide donor) together with each injection of DAMGO attenuated naloxone-precipitated withdrawal hyperalgesia. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that NaHS significantly reversed the gene and protein expression of up-regulated spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in naloxone-treated animals. NaHS also inhibited naloxone-induced cAMP rebound and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in rat spinal cord. In SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, NaHS inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP production and adenylate cyclase (AC) activity. Moreover, NaHS pre-treatment suppressed naloxone-stimulated activation of protein kinase C (PKC) α, Raf-1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in rat spinal cord. Our data suggest that H2S prevents the development of opioid withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia via suppression of synthesis of CGRP in spine through inhibition of AC/cAMP and PKC/Raf-1/ERK pathways.
Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors are predominantly used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, and have been recently shown to have a potential therapeutic effect for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) through stimulation of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signalling by elevating cGMP, which is a secondary messenger involved in processes of neuroplasticity. In the present study, the effects of a PDE5 inhibitor, icarrin (ICA), on learning and memory as well as the pathological features in APP/PS1 transgenic AD mice were investigated. Ten-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP695swe) and presenilin 1 (PS1-dE9) were given ICA (30 and 60 mg/kg) or sildenafil (SIL) (2 mg/kg), age-matched wild-type (WT) mice were given ICA (60 mg/kg), and APP/PS1 and WT control groups were given an isovolumic vehicle orally twice a day for four months. Results demonstrated that ICA treatments significantly improved learning and memory of APP/PS1 transgenic mice in Y-maze tasks. The amyloid precursor protein (APP), amyloid-beta (Aβ1-40/42) and PDE5 mRNA and/or protein levels were increased in the hippocampus and cortex of APP/PS1 mice, and ICA treatments decreased these physiopathological changes. Furthermore, ICA-treated mice showed an increased expression of three nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms at both mRNA and protein levels, together with increased NO and cGMP levels in the hippocampus and cortex of mice. These findings demonstrate that ICA improves learning and memory functions in APP/PS1 transgenic mice possibly through the stimulation of NO/cGMP signalling and co-ordinated induction of NOS isoforms.
This paper presents a novel metamaterial constructed with wires, spheres and hollow slabs (WSHS), which simultaneously exhibits negative permittivity and permeability. An electromagnetic wave simulation is performed based on the proposed metamaterial and shows that a negative refractive index is achieved for this metamaterial. Adjusting the lattice constant of the unit cell is an easy way to manipulate the frequency of negative index of this structure. A left-hand material prism is designed composed of metamaterial unit cells and the simulation on the proposed prism proves the left-hand behavior of the designed metamaterial.
Wiwaxia is an extinct early metazoan with uncertain affinities, which is well represented in strata of Cambrian Series 2–3 age. Well-preserved representatives of Wiwaxia are known from the Burgess Shale Biota and the Kaili Biota. Here, new material of Wiwaxia corrugata (Matthew, 1899) is reported from the upper part of the Tsinghsutung Formation (Cambrian Series 2) near Balang Village, Guizhou Province, China. These specimens have a close evolutionary relationship to Wiwaxia taijiangensis Zhao, Qian & Lee, 1994 from the overlying Kaili Formation. New Wiwaxia material from the Tsinghsutung Formation and observations of specimens with articulated individuals from the Kaili Formation suggest that Wiwaxia taijiangensis should be a junior synonym of W. corrugata. A new study indicates that W. corrugata has a wide geographic distribution, a short geological history and evolutionary uniqueness and provides new data on taphonomy of this genus.
Two new species, Lecanora hafelliana L. Lü, Y. Joshi & Hur and L. loekoesii Y. Joshi, L. Lü & Hur, are described as new to science from South Korea and eight species, L. campestris (Schaer.) Hue, L. cenisia Ach., L. nipponica H. Miyaw., L. perplexa Brodo, L. plumosa Müll. Arg., L. polytropa (Hoffm.) Rabenh., L. subrugosa Nyl. and L. sulcata (Hue) H. Miyaw., are recorded from South Korea for the first time. Lecanora hafelliana is characterized by the presence of hafellic acid, which is reported for the first time in this genus, while L. loekoesii is characterized by multispored asci and a thallus containing norstictic acid.
Various types of chemical doping have been reported as very effective methods to improve the superconducting properties of MgB2 superconductor. Specially, carbon doping via liquid type of carbon-containing compounds have been shown better superconducting properties. In this work, the liquid type of glycerin (C3H8O3) was used as a carbon dopant in MgB2 synthesis. The glycerin was mixed with a liquid media at a different ratio and then pretreated with refined boron powder. Then carbon doped MgB2 superconductor was synthesized through subsequent heat treatment of the pretreated boron powder with magnesium powder. Variation of the amount of carbon dopants and viscosity of the liquid media was correlated with critical current densities and other superconducting properties of MgB2 bulk. The effects of liquid carbon dopants on the superconducting properties also compared with those of solid dopants.