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This article contributes to the growing body of research on social assistance (SA) dynamics by analyzing patterns of SA receipt in China, a middle-income country with a large informal employment sector. Using national low-income household survey data and event history analysis, this study explored the mechanisms underlying exit from Dibao (formally known as Minimum Living Security) and changes in exit probability over time. We found that in the context of an informal economy, the ‘explicit’ change of individual characteristics and employment structure decisively affects receipt duration on the micro and macroeconomic levels, respectively. On the policy level, affected by the informal employment structure, employment services tend to be of low quality and fail to promote Dibao exit effectively. Although the specific Dibao payment strategy, which is used to address the difficulty in means tests, largely curbs the risks of declining working motivation, it considerably increases the possibility of prolonged Dibao use. With this systemic influence of informal employment, a unique pattern of SA receipt characterized by the combination of long-term use and a nondecreasing hazard rate has developed in China.
To explore the prevalence of EM in an older Chinese population and examine the mediating role of three psychosocial variables – psychological vulnerability, housework involvement, and financial independence – in the relationship between physical frailty and EM.
The data source was the Third Survey on Chinese Women’s Social Status (SCSSW), which is a nationwide decennial survey conducted in 2010.
Community-dwelling adults aged 60 and older who participated in SCSSW (N = 3516).
The past-year prevalence of EM and its seven subtypes, physical frailty, psychological vulnerability, housework involvement, financial independence, and demographic characteristics.
The past-year prevalence of EM was 4% among Chinese older adults, with psychological abuse being the most common subtype (3.9%). A higher level of physical frailty had a direct influence on EM. Older adults with higher levels of physical frailty were more likely to have higher levels of psychological vulnerability (anxiety, loneliness, and uselessness) and lower levels of housework involvement, which further correlated with increased risk of EM. Frail Chinese older adults were less likely to have financial independence, which in turn, surprisingly predicted a lower probability of EM.
In this nationally representative sample, we provided the first evidence of the prevalence of EM among Chinese older adults and expanded the global understanding of EM by examining the mediating role of three psychosocial variables. Future studies are warranted to corroborate our findings and identify factors contributing to the complex mechanism of EM.
Faced with the dramatic pace of population ageing, the Shanghai municipal government launched a pilot programme in 2013 designed to address this and to strengthen ageing-in-place arrangements by providing basic in-home medical services for residents above the age of 80. Yet after a two-year trial run, the ‘Home-Based Medical Care Scheme for the Oldest-Old’ (HBMCSOO) policy remained significantly under-utilised despite the increasing demand for medical services. Our multi-disciplinary research team of social workers and anthropologists identified two key factors impeding the implementation of home-based medical care services: (a) the distortion of policy implementation and (b) the inadequate professionalisation of community-based elder-care workers. Based on our evaluation of the pilot programme, the Shanghai municipal government made several practical adjustments to improve the subsequent city-wide policy implemented in 2016. While these changes mostly focused on minor adjustments to improve in-home medical services for the oldest-old, they represent an encouraging first step towards our call for a holistic integrated care system whose design and delivery takes into account local political and social contexts, including existing institutional infrastructure and cultural expectations about care-giving responsibilities. The challenges of implementing Shanghai's HBMCSOO policy ultimately provide instructive lessons on best practices for integrating medical and social services in order to improve ageing-in-place measures in diverse local settings around the world.
This article reviews the significant and diverse range of research in applied linguistics published in Australia in the period 2008–2014. Whilst acknowledging that a great deal of research by Australian scholars has been published internationally during these seven years, this review is based on books, journal articles, and conference proceedings published in Australia. Many of these sources will be unfamiliar to an international audience, and the purpose of this article is to highlight this body of research and the themes emerging from it. The journals selected in this review include Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, Australian Review of Applied Linguistics (ARAL), BABEL, English in Australia, English Australia, Papers in Language Testing and Assessment, Prospect: An Australian Journal of TESOL, TESOL in Context, and University of Sydney Papers in TESOL. Selected refereed proceedings are from key national conferences including: ALAA (Applied Linguistics Association of Australia), ACTA (Australian Council of TESOL Association), ASFLA (Australian Systemic Functional Linguistics Association), and ALS (Australian Linguistics Society). Our review of selected applied linguistics work revolves around the following themes: the responses to the needs of government planning and policy; the complexity of Australia's multicultural, multilingual society; the concern for recognizing context and culture as key factors in language and language learning; social activism in supporting language pedagogy and literacy programmes at all levels of education; and acknowledgement of the unique place held by Indigenous languages and Aboriginal English in the national linguistic landscape.
Compared with current cellular networks, next generation mobile networks are expected to encompass more sophisticated features, including the support of higher data transmission rates and user equipment (UE) mobility, location management, diversified service levels, etc. In order to accommodate these requirements, the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is devoted to the standardization of Long Term Evolution (LTE) and LTE-Advanced systems, which have been recognized as major candidates for the fourth-generation (4G) mobile networks. In LTE/LTE-Advanced systems, the network structure will be heterogeneous. How to maintain and improve mobility, handover (HO), and location management, while avoiding user experience deterioration, is a challenging task. In this chapter, we will study the mobility management challenge and illustrate advanced mobility management schemes.
In LTE/LTE-Advanced systems, the factors that make mobility, HO, and location management a challenging task are as follows
The rapid evolution of cellular networks results in the coexistence of multiple radio access technologies (RATs), e.g., Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) and LTE/System Architecture Evolution (SAE). This demands optimized cooperation among multiple RATs to enable UEs to roam from one RAT to another.
The introduction of low-power nodes (LPNs) largely increases the total number of base stations (BSs), making the network structure and interference conditions more intricate. Thus, traditional mobility load balancing (MLB) and mobility management schemes need to be revisited to suit the new heterogeneous cellular network (HCN) architecture.
The complexity of LTE/LTE-Advanced systems leads to a large number of network parameters. Therefore, efforts need to be made in defining proper key performance indicators and developing optimization techniques for mobility management in various scenarios.
Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified four low-penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We hypothesized that further moderate- or low-penetrance variants exist among the subset of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) not well tagged by the genotyping arrays used in the previous studies, which would account for some of the remaining risk. We therefore conducted a time- and cost-effective stage 1 GWAS on 342 invasive serous cases and 643 controls genotyped on pooled DNA using the high-density Illumina 1M-Duo array. We followed up 20 of the most significantly associated SNPs, which are not well tagged by the lower density arrays used by the published GWAS, and genotyping them on individual DNA. Most of the top 20 SNPs were clearly validated by individually genotyping the samples used in the pools. However, none of the 20 SNPs replicated when tested for association in a much larger stage 2 set of 4,651 cases and 6,966 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Given that most of the top 20 SNPs from pooling were validated in the same samples by individual genotyping, the lack of replication is likely to be due to the relatively small sample size in our stage 1 GWAS rather than due to problems with the pooling approach. We conclude that there are unlikely to be any moderate or large effects on ovarian cancer risk untagged by less dense arrays. However, our study lacked power to make clear statements on the existence of hitherto untagged small-effect variants.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a PPAR-α-regulated metabolic regulator that plays critical roles in glucose homoeostasis, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity and obesity. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), especially trans-10 (t-10), cis-12 (c-12), have shown anti-obesity properties. In addition, CLA is reported as a high-affinity ligand and activator of PPAR-α. This raises the possibility that FGF21 might be involved in the anti-obesity effect of CLA. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that FGF21 expression in the liver could be induced by t-10, c-12-CLA through PPAR-α. HepG2 cells were treated with 100 μm-bovine serum albumin, 10 μm-t-10, c-12-CLA or 100 μm-t-10, c-12-CLA for 8 h. A total of ten adult C57BL/6J mice were fed with the diets containing 1 % soya oil or t-10, c-12-CLA for 5 d. t-10, c-12-CLA stimulated hepatic FGF21 mRNA abundance as determined by real-time RT-PCR. t-10, c-12-CLA also increased serum FGF21 concentrations as measured by an ELISA. Co-transfection analysis indicated that reporter gene expression from the mouse FGF21 promoter was induced by t-10, c-12-CLA in a PPAR-α-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that t-10, c-12-CLA induces hepatic FGF21 expression through PPAR-α. This FGF21 and PPAR-α linkage may provide another potential explanation for the anti-obesity effect of t-10, c-12-CLA.
Involvement of Magnesium in Psychiatric Diseases
Dehua Chui, Neuroscience Research Institute & Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory for Neuroscience, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Public Health, Health Science Center, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China,
Zheng Chen, Department of Psychiatry & Institute for Geriatric Clinic and Rehabilitation, Beijing Geriatric Hospital, Beijing 100095, China,
Jia Yu, Department of Psychiatry & Institute for Geriatric Clinic and Rehabilitation, Beijing Geriatric Hospital, Beijing 100095, China,
Honglin Zhang, Department of Psychiatry & Institute for Geriatric Clinic and Rehabilitation, Beijing Geriatric Hospital, Beijing 100095, China,
Weishan Wang, Department of Psychiatry & Institute for Geriatric Clinic and Rehabilitation, Beijing Geriatric Hospital, Beijing 100095, China,
Yuetao Song, Department of Psychiatry & Institute for Geriatric Clinic and Rehabilitation, Beijing Geriatric Hospital, Beijing 100095, China,
Huan Yang, Neuroscience Research Institute & Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory for Neuroscience, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Public Health, Health Science Center, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China,
Yi Liu, Neuroscience Research Institute & Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory for Neuroscience, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Public Health, Health Science Center, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. It is characterized by a progressive cognitive impairment clinically, and excessive deposits of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides pathologically. Environmental factors, including nutrition and metal elements, are implicated in the pathophysiology of AD. Magnesium (Mg) affects many biochemical mechanisms vital for neuronal properties and synaptic plasticity, including the response of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors to excitatory amino acids, stability and viscosity of the cell membrane and antagonism of calcium. Mg levels were found decreased in various tissues of AD patients and negatively correlated with clinical deterioration. Moreover, Mg was demonstrated to modulate the trafficking and processing of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of AD. Here, we review in vitro and in vivo data that indicated a role for magnesium in many biological and clinical aspects of AD.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in elderly people, affecting approximate 6∼8% of all individuals over the age of 65 years. AD is characterized by progressive cognitive impairment and distinct neuropathological lesions in the brain, including intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, extracellular parenchymal and cerebrovascular senile plaques (Braak and Braak, 1991).
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