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Besides the importance of the actinide dioxide series as a nuclear fuel, the magnetic properties of these compounds at low temperatures are particularly interesting. Their surprisingly varied physical properties at low temperatures stimulate continuing interest for both theory and experiment. Recently, we have performed 17O-NMR studies for the first time on Pu and Amcontaining dioxide systems, (Pu1-xAmx)O2. For the x=0.09 sample, a temperature-dependent NMR line broadening has been observed at low temperatures. By comparing the experimental data with the results of NMR line simulations, we have estimated the effective moment of Am ions to be Peff=1.38 μB. The value suggests the 5f5 (Am4+) state of the Am ion in PuO2. For the x=1 (=AmO2) sample, on the other hand, our 17O-NMR data provide the first microscopic evidence for a phase transition at 8.5 K as a bulk property in this system. A spectrum with a triangular line shape indicates that the internal field is distributed very nearly randomly in the ordered state.
Background: Maintaining continuous pharmacological treatment of patients with dementia is often difficult. In the current study we surveyed the discontinuation of donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in a Japanese geriatric outpatient clinic in a university hospital.
Methods: Using a retrospective chart review from 1 July 2003 to 30 June 2005, prescriptions of donepezil and the reasons for discontinuing the prescription in a university hospital were determined. The severity of dementia was evaluated by the clinical dementia rating (CDR).
Results: Out of 264 patients, 140 (53.1%) discontinued taking donepezil during the two-year observation period. The mean age of the continued group and the discontinued group did not differ significantly (79.5 ± 6.7, 79.8 ± 6.4, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the patients with more severe cognitive impairment (CDR score = 3) discontinued donepezil earlier and more frequently. The reasons for discontinuation were a change in the doctors treating the patients (n = 71), ineffectiveness (n = 16), gastrointestinal side-effects (n = 11), and others (n = 41). In patients with CDR = 1 or 2, changes of doctors were the most frequent reason for discontinuation. However, in patients with CDR = 3, ineffectiveness of the medication was the major reason for discontinuation.
Conclusion: Donepezil was frequently discontinued, and the rate of discontinuation was higher in patients with advanced dementia.
High-energy protons are generated by focusing an ultrashort pulsed
high intensity laser at the Advanced Photon Research Center, JAERI-Kansai
onto thin (thickness <10 μm) Tantalum targets. The laser
intensities are about 4 × 1018 W/cm2. The
prepulse level of the laser pulse is measured with combination of a PIN
photo diode and a cross correlator and is less than 10−6.
A quarter-wave plate is installed into the laser beam line to create
circularly polarized pulses. Collimated high energy protons are observed
with CH coated Tantalum targets irradiated with the circularly polarized
laser pulses. The beam divergence of the generated proton beam is measured
with a CR-39 track detector and is about 6 mrad.
In order to measure the concentrations of anthropogenically influenced gases in the stratosphere, we have collected air samples from the lower stratosphere since 1985, by a balloon-borne cryogenic sampling method, developed at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). Air samples of ≃16 liters at STP were collected in the stratosphere at altitudes from 18.6 to 30.4 km, over the northeastern part of Japan (39.5°N, 139–142°E), on 1 September 1989. We conducted 14C analyses to study the vertical and horizontal air-mass movement in the stratosphere, and to investigate the air transport mechanism between troposphere and stratosphere. Carbon dioxide (containing a few mg carbon) was separated cryogenically from the air samples, and the 14C concentration of the CO2 was measured by a Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer, using Fe-graphite targets prepared by reducing CO2 on Fe-powder with hydrogen in a Vycor tube at 650°. The 14C concentrations, expressed as Δ14C, of CO2 were 267–309‰ at altitudes of 21–30 km, and 134‰ at 19–20 km. The Δ14C values at 21–30 km were higher than those of the current tropospheric CO2, of around 80–200‰. The observed 14C concentrations, higher in the stratosphere than the troposphere, seem to be explained by large bomb-produced 14C inventories and/or high 14C production by cosmic rays, as well as weak vertical mixing of air masses in the stratosphere.
Electrical properties of Y–Ba–Cu–O superconductors, such as the critical current density and the zero-resistance temperature, are systematically improved by changing the compression pressure during the formation process of the specimens. Also, by changing the silver powder content of the superconducting Y–Ba–Cu–O powder, the critical current density and the zero-resistance temperature are remarkably improved. The resistance-drop temperature is insensitive to changes in the compression pressure, silver content, and magnetic field, if the field is applied perpendicular to the specimens. The critical current density of the specimens with and without silver decreases exponentially with the perpendicular magnetic field. The critical current densities of specimens without silver showed much lower sensitivity to perpendicularly applied magnetic fields than those of the specimens having a silver content. Along with the above improvements, the present paper also examines several factors that affect the superconducting characteristics. These factors include impurities in the air and strong magnetic fields.
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