The accurate estimation of key demographic parameters is invaluable for making decisions about the management of endangered wildlife but such estimates are often difficult to obtain. Parameters such as species-specific apparent survival rates are an important component in understanding population ecology and informing management decisions. The Maui Parrotbill Pseudonestor xanthophrys is a ‘Critically Endangered’ Hawaiian honeycreeper endemic to the Island of Maui. We used an 18-year encounter history dataset comprising 146 marked individuals to estimate apparent survival between sexes and age classes (juvenile, adult). A difference in survival rates between sexes was strongly supported; 0.72 ± 0.04 for adult females and 0.82 ± 0.03 for adult males. This difference may be a reflection of either reproductive costs or additional risks of incubation and brooding, such as depredation. We also found support for age-biased survival, but limited information for juveniles did not provide a well-supported model fit for our data (juvenile survival = 0.17 ± 0.15; adults = 0.78 ± 0.02). However, apparent adult survival was similar to that of other Hawaiian passerines (mean 0.78 ± 0.03, n = 16). These results suggest that efforts to prevent the extinction of this species may benefit from future management strategies focused on increasing female survival such as predator reduction.