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Coupling of clearance joint and harsh aerodynamic heating environment is an inevitable nonlinear factor in folding mechanism of the fin of high-speed aircrafts that remarkably modifies natural frequencies and modes of vibration from the initial design state. However, accurately predicting dynamic properties of deployable fin with full consideration of these effects is not common industry practice. A practical semi-analytical model based on Hertz contact theory and ESDU-78035 model is proposed in this study to investigate high-temperature connection stiffness of local hinged–locked mechanisms. Material property degradation and clearance variation caused by thermal expansion are comprehensively considered and quantified in this model. Vibration characteristics of the assembled deployable fin are then solved using finite element method (FEM). The real-time evolutionary process of thermal mode of the fin is discussed. And natural frequencies of fixed-value and time-varying connection stiffness are compared. The simulation results of this study demonstrate that the relative error of structure temperature between the sequential approach and fully coupled simulations is less than 6.98%. The connection stiffness (slope of the load-displacement curve) of the folding mechanism under high temperature conditions decreases by 3.52%, and the variation is mainly caused by the degradation of the elastic modulus of the material, while the clearance change due to the thermal expansion has no significant effect on the slope. The natural frequency of the deployable fin exhibits an inverse correlation with the temperature change trend, and the first three frequencies decrease by 1.67, 7.75, and 16.28 Hz compared to the initial value, respectively.
In the experiments reported here, we used the female ladybird Coccinella septempunctata L. as a model to identify diapause-associated proteins using proteomics technology. Our results indicated that protein expression patterns of diapausing and nondiapausing individuals were highly differentiated. A total of 58 spots showed significant differences in abundance (Ratio > 2 and P < 0.05) according to two-dimensional electrophoresis and GE Image Scanner III analysis. Sixteen protein spots were further investigated using mass spectrometry. Eight proteins were characterized, including chaperones and proteins involved in glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Among these proteins, five proteins were upregulated in diapausing female adults, including a chaperone (Symbionin symL), malate dehydrogenase (putative), two proteins linked to lipid metabolism (unknown and conserved hypothetical protein) and phosphoglyceromutase (partial). By contrast, isocitrate dehydrogenase (RH49423p), fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (AGAP001942-PA), and a putative medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase were downregulated. These results contribute to the understanding of diapause mechanisms of the ladybird C. septempunctata and may suggest methods for improving the application of this natural enemy insect.
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