To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Coupling of clearance joint and harsh aerodynamic heating environment is an inevitable nonlinear factor in folding mechanism of the fin of high-speed aircrafts that remarkably modifies natural frequencies and modes of vibration from the initial design state. However, accurately predicting dynamic properties of deployable fin with full consideration of these effects is not common industry practice. A practical semi-analytical model based on Hertz contact theory and ESDU-78035 model is proposed in this study to investigate high-temperature connection stiffness of local hinged–locked mechanisms. Material property degradation and clearance variation caused by thermal expansion are comprehensively considered and quantified in this model. Vibration characteristics of the assembled deployable fin are then solved using finite element method (FEM). The real-time evolutionary process of thermal mode of the fin is discussed. And natural frequencies of fixed-value and time-varying connection stiffness are compared. The simulation results of this study demonstrate that the relative error of structure temperature between the sequential approach and fully coupled simulations is less than 6.98%. The connection stiffness (slope of the load-displacement curve) of the folding mechanism under high temperature conditions decreases by 3.52%, and the variation is mainly caused by the degradation of the elastic modulus of the material, while the clearance change due to the thermal expansion has no significant effect on the slope. The natural frequency of the deployable fin exhibits an inverse correlation with the temperature change trend, and the first three frequencies decrease by 1.67, 7.75, and 16.28 Hz compared to the initial value, respectively.
The field distribution and the restraint effect of multipactor and plasma discharge on the periodic triangular surface have been theoretically and experimentally analyzed. It has been found by computational and simulative analysis that the periodic profile can quickly restrain or weaken multipactor and plasma discharge in low pressure within several microwave periods. Considering the field enhancement, increasing the slope angle, advancing the electric field, and lowering the frequency can enhance the multipactor suppression. X-band giga-watt high power microwave experiment with 20 ns short pulse was conducted. It was demonstrated that the periodic profile can effectively improve the breakdown threshold and slower the speed of tail erosion.
The effect of minor addition (MA) of metallic alloying elements in Cu–Ti-rich Cu–Ti–Zr–Ni–Si bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) has been investigated. MA of elements having a relatively small positive enthalpy of mixing (partial substitution of Zr with Nb) leads to enhancement of compressive plasticity (up to about 5% of fracture strain) when the addition leads to improvement in glass-forming ability (GFA). If the GFA is reduced (partial substitution of Ni with Ag or Co), the plasticity is also reduced. On the one hand, the MA of elements having a relatively large positive enthalpy of mixing (partial substitution of Zr with Y) can lead to the liquid-state phase separation in Cu–Ti–Zr–Ni–Si(–Sn) BMGs, although the addition can lead to drastic deterioration in GFA and plasticity. This concept would be considered to be effective even in design of other BMG systems with tailored properties.
The effect of replacement of Ti with Y or Nb in Ti-rich Ti–Zr–Be–Cu–Ni bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) has been investigated. The minor addition (MA) of Y (Y–Ti: +58 kJ/mol) induced phase separation into Y-rich crystalline particles and Ti-rich amorphous matrix, while the MA of Nb (Nb–Ti: +10 kJ/mol) led to nanocrystallization in Ti-rich BMGs with icosahedral nuclei. This result indicates that MA of elements having positive enthalpy of mixing can induce a different degree of instability in the single amorphous matrix depending on the amount of repulsive interaction energy. In particular, MA of Nb (up to 4 at.%) significantly increased the compressive fracture strain (ϵf) up to ∼9.35 ± 0.2%, which indicates that the plasticity of BMGs can be enhanced by the size-modulated icosahedral phase embedded in the amorphous matrix.
In the present study, we show by tailoring the combinations of the bonding energy among the elements in the liquid state, glass forming ability and compressive mechanical properties of the metallic glasses (MGs) can be improved. The mixing enthalpy values for binary atom pairs in the ternary Mg–Ni–Gd alloys (Mg–Ni: −12 kJ/mol, Mg–Gd: −27 kJ/mol, Ni–Gd: −161 kJ/mol) covers a wide range, although they are all negative. Mg-rich Mg–Ni–Gd (Mg > 70 at.%) alloys can be readily solidified into an amorphous state in a wide composition range up to 4 mm in diameter using the injection casting method; they exhibit the highest level of glass transition temperature Tg among those reported in Mg-based MGs so far. In particular, Mg-rich Mg–Ni–Gd bulk metallic glasses with 10–15 at.% Ni and 10–15 at.% Gd exhibit high strength over 900 MPa and large plastic strain up to ∼2% during compressive loading.
The microwave emission from a model snow field, consisting of randomly spaced ice spheres which scatter independently, is calculated. Mie scattering and radiative transfer theory are applied in a manner similar to that used in calculating microwave and optical properties of clouds. The extinction coefficient is computed as a function of both microwave wavelength and ice-particle radius. Volume scattering by the individual ice particles in the snow field significantly decreases the computed emission for particle radii greater than a few hundredths of the microwave wavelength. Since the mean annual temperature and the accumulation rate of dry polar firn mainly determine the grain sizes upon which the microwave emission depends, these two parameters account for the main features of the 1.55 cm emission observed from Greenland and Antarctica with the Nimbus-5 scanning radiometer. For snow particle sizes normally encountered, most of the calculated radiation emanates from a layer on the order of 10 m in thickness at a wavelength of 2.8 cm, and less at shorter wavelengths. A marked increase in emission from wet versus dry snow is predicted, a result which is consistent with observations. The model results indicate that the characteristic grain sizes in the radiating layers, dry-firn accumulation rales, areas of summer melting, and physical temperatures, can be determined from multispectral microwave observations.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.