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The reduction of reproductive performance associated with stress is a known phenomenon in domestic birds. This review demonstrates the involvement of glucocorticoids, a stress hormone, in the decision-making process regarding energy ingestion and distribution in laying hens. During the energetic challenge induced by a stressful environment, corticosterone stimulates energy intake and a preference for a high-fat diet by up-regulating neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. The elevated corticosterone levels in response to stressors may be associated with suppressed reproduction in laying hens via a possible perturbation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Corticosterone suppresses follicular development and is energy dependent by decreasing the availability of the circulating yolk precursor and the prevention of yolk deposition in follicles. Energy status is also involved in rejuvenation in moult hens.
Rapid Prototyping is a versatile method to build complex-shaped ceramic or metallic parts on a mesoscopic scale. In this work the fabrication of ceramic gas turbine engine parts with Mold Shape Deposition Manufacturing (Mold SDM) is described. Mold SDM exists of two steps: The pattern generation in wax using deposition and machining of wax layers and the pattern transfer process with gel-casting. For parts with feature sizes that are too small for machining, microfabrication methods are used to fabricate the mold. By combining micro- and macro-fabrication, complex parts in a wide variety of sizes can be manufactured.
The surface quality of the mold significantly influences the mechanical properties of the final ceramic part. The contribution of the mold quality to the final mechanical properties is studied in this work.
Over an order of magnitude reduction in dark current was observed for gas-source molecular beam epitaxially (GSMBE) grown, lattice-matched n- and p-type InGaAs/InP quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs). Peak spectral response at 8.93 and 4.55 μm for n- and p-type QWIPs, respectively, open the possibility of dual-band monolithic integration under identical GSMBE growth conditions.
In order to examine the chronologic changes in genetic variance and heritability of anthropometric characteristics of Chinese infants in Taiwan, a total of 521 pairs of same-sexed twin neonates given birth in four major general teaching hospitals in Taipei City were studied. Based on the placental pattern and 12 red blood cell antigens, 428 MZ and 93 DZ twin pairs were identified and followed up to the age of one year. There was no significant genetic variance for all anthropometric characteristics adjusted for sex and gestational week before the age of six months. After adjusting for sex and gestational week, a significant genetic variance was observed at the age of six months, with heritability values of 0.51 (weight), 0.63 (head circumference), 0.77 (chest circumference), and 0.53 (arm circumference), as well as at one year, although with considerably lower heritability values. This implies that growth is dynamically determined by both genetic and environmental factors during infancy.
In order to examine the genetic variance and heritability of temperament among Chinese infants in Taiwan, a total of 62 pairs of same-sexed twin infants given birth in four major general teaching hospitals in Taipei City were studied. Based on placentation and 12 red blood cell antigens, 44 MZ and 18 DZ pairs were identified. Temperament was assessed at the age of six months by the Chinese edition of Carey's Temperament scale. Significant genetic variance was observed for activity level, approach or withdrawal, intensity of reaction, quality of mood, and threshold of responsiveness, with a heritability of 0.64, 0.56, 0.74, 0.39, and 0.45, respectively. There was no significant intrapair difference in temperamental characteristics between monochorionic and dichorionic MZ twins.
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