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Conversion of CH4 molecule into higher hydrocarbons using two different wavelengths of 248 nm KrF laser and 355 nm of third harmonic of Nd:YAG laser is studied experimentally and theoretically. The stable products are analyzed and the effect of pressure on conversion of methane is measured. The detected reaction products are C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6. The conversion efficiency of 33.5% for 355 nm in comparison to 2.2% conversion for 248 nm for C2H2 is achieved. The potential of laser parameters as an important variable in controlling of final products is investigated.
The optimum convolution of dual short pulse for producing the maximum wakefield and the highest dissociation probability of CH4 has been investigated. By using three fundamental shapes of pulses though four different arrangements, the generated wake are considered in plasma. It is found that when the first and second pulses were rectangular–triangular and sinusoidal pulse shapes, respectively, the resultant wakefield amplitude is the highest. This effect opens up a new novel way by pulse shaping mechanism in the photo dissociation dynamics of molecules and controlling of chemical reactions in the desired channels by short pulse intense lasers for reducing the computation time of genetic algorithm model. Using field assisted dissociation model, the dissociation probability for a CH4+ molecule exposed to a 100 femtosecond 8 Jcm−2 Ti:Sapphire laser pulse is calculated. Here, the highest possible dissociation probability of the methane ion is calculated by the gradient optimization method in which the gradient of a function should be in the direction of the local extremes. The C-H molecular bond of CH4+ ion is assumed to be in the same direction as the electric field component of the laser pulse. These results show that there is an excellent match with experimental data. The remarkable feature of this work is that the sensitivity of the dissociation probability of the initial bond length q, is studied and the desired product channel is controlled by variation of the laser intensity and it's time evolution by introducing a characteristic vectored space for intensity and duration of two tailored rectangular femtosecond laser pulses.
In this work, we introduce a new ellipsoid model to describe bubble acceleration of electrons and discuss the required conditions of forming it. We have found that the electron trajectory is strongly related to background electron energy and cavity potential ratio. In the ellipsoid cavity regime, the quality of the electron beam is improved in contrast to other methods, such as that using periodic plasma wakefield, spherical cavity regime, and plasma channel guided acceleration. The trajectory of the electron motion can be described as hyperbola, parabola, or ellipsoid path. It is influenced by the position and energy of the electrons and the electrostatic potential of the cavity. In the experimental part of this work, a 20 TW power and 30 fs laser pulse was focused on a pulsed He gas jet. We have focused the laser pulse in the best matched point above the nozzle gas to obtain a stable ellipsoid bubble. The finding of the optimum points will be described in analytical details.
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