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With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L⊙, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.
Wet feeding beneficially affects feed intake and growth rates of poultry in hot climates (Forbes 2003). Fermenting liquid feeds for pigs has been shown to reduce microbial contamination of the feed (Beal et al., 2002) and this could be an added advantage in hot climates. The most desired property of fermented feed is a high lactic acid concentration produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as the fermenting organisms. This high lactic acid concentration resulting in a low pH is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of fermented feeds. This activity is important for food and environmental safety. Grain sorghum is widely used as a food and animal feed cereal in many parts of Africa, Asia and the semi-arid tropics world-wide. It is recognised that differences in the colour of sorghum varieties are due mainly to their concentration of polyphenol compounds mainly tannins. These compounds have some antimicrobial properties and may affect the activity of lactic acid bacteria used to ferment liquid feeds. Little is known about the lactic acid fermentation of sorghum grain for fermented feeds in monogastric nutrition. The present study was designed to compare the fermentation of red and white sorghum with LAB for inclusion as a component of poultry diets.
The degradation mechanism of the Schottky contact of Al/Ti/n-GaAs and Al/Pt/Ti/n-GaAs under the heat treatment of 300°C has been investigated. Barrier height of the Al/Ti/n-GaAs Schottky contact degrades drastically after the heat treatment, in which Ti-Al alloy and Ga out-diffusion have been observed. On the other hand, the barrier height of Al/Pt/Ti/n-GaAs contacts is stable under the heat treatment and, Al-Ti alloying as well as Ga out-diffusion in the metals could not be noticed. From these results, it is presumably concluded that the degradation of the Schottky contacts under the heat treatment is closely correlated with the Ga atom out-diffusion from GaAs surface into the metal films after Al-Ti alloy reach to the GaAs surface. The barrier height reduction after the heat treatment can be explained by the formation of the donor type level at the interface due to the Ga vacancy pile-up arose from the Ga out-diffusion. Pt layer was proved to be an effective barrier suppressing the intermetallic alloying and preventing out-diffusion of Ga.
New multilayered photoreceptor consisting of all layers of a-Si1−xCx:H (x=0.1−0.8) has been developed on the basis of a high rate deposition process established using a glow discharge in a mixture of SiH4 and C2H2. This SiC photoreceptor is for negative charging and shows the excellent spectral sensitivity that is high in a short wavelength region and is reduced at the wavelengths longer than 600nm, suitable for the plain paper copier. The charge acceptance more than 40V/μn is achieved for the thickness less than 20μm. The charging characteristics are discussed in terms of deep emission states in the a-SiC:H.
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