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Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is significantly affected in individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder (BD-I). The current study investigated whether symptomatic remission and resilience might differently impact HRQOL in these patients.
Fifty-two patients with schizophrenia and 60 patients suffering from BD-I from outpatient mental health services as well as 77 healthy control subjects from the general community were included into a cross-sectional study. HRQOL and resilience were assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF and the Resilience Scale. In patients, psychopathology was quantified by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale or the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale, respectively.
Notably, both patient groups showed lower HRQOL and resilience compared to control subjects, non-remitted patients indicated lower HRQOL than remitted ones. The effect of remission on HRQOL was significantly larger in patients with BD-I than in those with schizophrenia but did not explain the difference in HRQOL between groups. Resilience predicted HRQOL in all three groups. When accounting for the effect of resilience among remitted patients, only the difference in HRQOL between schizophrenia patients and control subjects was significant.
These findings demonstrate the impact of symptomatic remission and resilience on HRQOL of both patients suffering from schizophrenia and BD-I and indicate that these factors are especially relevant for HRQOL of patients with BD-I.
Two benefit-transfer approaches are used to estimate welfare losses from closure of Lake Erie beaches. We identify conditions for which the function transfer, which is more time-consuming and data-intensive, is worth the effort relative to a simple value transfer. The function transfer was essential for estimating beach demand (trips) and demand elasticity (change in trips); when evaluating individual beach closures with known trip demand, the two methods yielded similar results. Results produced by the two transfer methods deviated (up to 106 percent) when multiple beaches were closed simultaneously because value transfer did not account for the loss of beach substitutes.
In the previous work, it is reported that the Spin-Seebeck effect (SSE), which refer to the generation of a spin current from a temperature gradient, can be enhanced by Fe interface treatment. Here, we investigated the Fe thickness (dFe) dependency of spin-Seebeck voltage (VSSE) and mixing conductance (gr) in Pt/Fe/Bi:YIG/SGGG system. As a result, magnitude of VSSE had a peak at dFe ≓ 1 ML (monolayer , ≓ 0.3 mm), and also increase of gr was saturated at this point. It suggests that VSSE increase with increasing gr when dFe is smaller than 1.0 ML. For the case in which dFe is larger than 1.0ML, however, VSSE decreases due to a spin current decay in Fe layer with a constant gr. These experimental results are consistent with previous theoretical works.
In order to evaluate the role of the RAD51 G135C genetic polymorphism on the risk of gastric cancer induced by Helicobacter pylori infection, we determined allele frequency and genotype distribution of this polymorphism in Bhutan – a population documented with high prevalence of gastric cancer and extremely high prevalence of H. pylori infection. The status of RAD51 G135C was examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR amplified fragments and sequencing. Histological scores were evaluated according to the updated Sydney system. G135C carriers showed significantly higher scores for intestinal metaplasia in the antrum than G135G carriers [mean (median) 0·33 (0) vs. 0·08 (0), P = 0·008]. Higher scores for intestinal metaplasia of G135C carriers compared to those of G135G carriers were also observed in H. pylori-positive patients [0·3 (0) vs. 0·1 (0), P = 0·002] and H. pylori-positive patients with gastritis [0·4 (0) vs. 0·1 (0), P = 0·002] but were not found in H. pylori-negative patients. Our findings revealed that a combination of H. pylori infection and RAD51 G135C genotype of the host showed an increasing score for intestinal metaplasia. Therefore, RAD51 G135C might be the important predictor for gastric cancer of H. pylori-infected patients.
In this paper, we discuss the characteristics of the InGaP/GaAs heterojunction phototransistors (HPTs) before and after the electrical stress at room temperature and assess the effectiveness of the emitter-ledge passivation. Although an electrical stress given to the phototransistors by keeping a collector current density of 37 A/cm2 for 1 hour at room temperature was too small to affect the room-temperature common-emitter current gain and photocurrent of both HPTs with and without the emitter-ledge passivation, they showed a significant decrease at 420 K due to the room-temperature electrical stress. Nevertheless, the room-temperature common-emitter current gain and photocurrent of the HPT with the emitter-ledge passivation were still higher than those of the HPT without the emitter-ledge passivation. The effectiveness of the emitter-ledge passivation against the electrical stress was more significant than that on the current gain in the dark. In addition to the electrical stress experiment, for a potential application of the InGaP/GaAs HPTs in space, we will irradiate the HPTs with 1-MeV electrons at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Both current gain and photocurrent decreased significantly after the electron irradiation. In contrast to the electrical stress, the damage due to the high-energy electron irradiation is a bulk-related phenomenon, and the emitter-ledge passivation does not seem to suppress the degradation.
We investigated electronic structure of one-dimensional biradical molecular chain which is constructed by exploiting the covalency between organic molecules of a diphenyl derivative of s-indacenodiphenalene (Ph2-IDPL). To control the crystallinity, we used gas deposition method. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) revealed developed band structure with wide dispersion of the one-dimensional biradical molecular chain.
We present the discovery of out-flow like plasma emissions with the Suzaku and ASCA data. Those plasmas have a size of ∼150 pc. Remarkably, the southern plasma is in a recombination dominant phase, which is not predicted by standard shock heating. A plausible scenario is either photoionization due to strong jet-like X-rays from Sgr A* or rapid cooling due to adiabatic expansion of a blowout plasma from the Galactic center about 105 years ago.
This study spatially quantifies hydrological ecosystem services and the production of ecosystem services at the watershed scale. We also investigate the effects of stressors such as land use change, climate change, and choices in land management practices on production of ecosystem services and their values. We demonstrate the approach in the Beaver River watershed in Rhode Island. Our key finding is that choices in land use and land management practices create tradeoffs across multiple ecosystem services and the extent of these tradeoffs depends considerably on the scenarios and ecosystem services being compared.
Effect of oxygen to nickel molar ratio (O2/Ni) on the crystallinity of atmospheric pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (APMOCVD) grown NiO at 500°C is reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis including grazing incident angle θ of 0.6°, θ-2θ, ɸ and rocking curve scan are employed for crystallographic characterization. Furthermore, surface roughness is studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). No evidence of diffraction peaks in X-ray grazing incident angle measurement confirms that all the grown NiO films are well oriented along a certain direction. θ-2θ scan results further indicate that the samples are highly oriented only along  direction on (0001) sapphire substrates. The analysis of full width at half maximum (FWHM) of rocking curve scan of (111) plane shows that higher O2/Ni ratio results in better crystallinity. The best crystallinity is achieved with FWHM as low as 0.106° at (111) rocking curve scan corresponding to 82.57nm grain size. AFM measurement shows that NiO films grown with higher O2/Ni ratio have smoother surface morphology.
Radiocarbon analysis of the carbonaceous aerosol allows an apportionment of fossil and non-fossil sources of airborne particulate matter (PM). A chemical separation of total carbon (TC) into its subtractions organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) refines this powerful technique, as OC and EC originate from different sources and undergo different processes in the atmosphere. Although 14C analysis of TC, EC, and OC has recently gained increasing attention, interlaboratory quality assurance measures have largely been missing, especially for the isolation of EC and OC. In this work, we present results from an intercomparison of 9 laboratories for 14C analysis of carbonaceous aerosol samples on quartz fiber filters. Two ambient PM samples and 1 reference material (RM 8785) were provided with representative filter blanks. All laboratories performed 14C determinations of TC and a subset of isolated EC and OC for isotopic measurement. In general, 14C measurements of TC and OC agreed acceptably well between the laboratories, i.e. for TC within 0.015–0.025 F14C for the ambient filters and within 0.041 F14C for RM 8785. Due to inhomogeneous filter loading, RM 8785 demonstrated only limited applicability as a reference material for 14C analysis of carbonaceous aerosols. 14C analysis of EC revealed a large deviation between the laboratories of 28–79% as a consequence of different separation techniques. This result indicates a need for further discussion on optimal methods of EC isolation for 14C analysis and a second stage of this intercomparison.
We have carried out in-situ measurements of cluster volume fraction in silicon films during deposition by using quartz crystal microbalances (QCM’s) together with a cluster-eliminating filter. The cluster volume fraction in films is deduced from in-situ measurements of film deposition rates with and without silicon clusters using QCM’s. The results show that the higher deposition rate leads to the higher volume fraction of clusters.
We have developed a cluster-eliminating filter which reduces amount of amorphous silicon nanoparticles (clusters) incorporated into a-Si:H films. We have applied the filter to fabricate a-Si:H Schottky solar cells. The cells show a high initial fill factor FF=0.563 and a high stabilized value after light soaking FF=0.552 which light-induced degradation was quite low value of 1.95 %.
Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) based on the multiple exciton generation (MEG) of QD are attractive in the field of photochemical cells because the improvement of conventional sensitized solar cells has been stagnant recently. The distinctive characteristics of QDs are their strong photo-response in the visible region and quantum confinement effects. Its theoretical efficiency is much higher than that of solar cell based on the single exciton generation (SEG). Moreover, QDs have tunable optical properties and band-gaps depending on the particle size. But QD materials widely used for QDSC have some disadvantages of toxicity and scarcity. On the other hand, Si as one of good QD materials is abundant and not toxic. Also, Si QD has high stability against light soaking and a high optical absorption coefficient due to quantum size effects. However, the research on Si QD is rare although the quantum effect of Si was already verified. It is one of reasons that the fabrication and collection of Si nano-particles are too difficult. Therefore, this work proposed multi-hollow plasma discharge chemical vapor deposition (CVD). It is possible to collect Si particles unlike conventional CVD and solve the problems of the wet process. The optical properties of Si particles were controlled by varying experimental conditions. In this work, Si particles were fabricated with various sizes and their characteristics were analyzed. Based on the results, Si QD was applied to Si QDSC.
For appropriate safety assessment of TRU waste disposal, the dominant chemical species of 14C-gas was studied. [1,2-14C] sodium acetate was added to flooded paddy soil samples, and the content of 14C in the soil, solution, and the emitted CO2 gas during incubation period was determined. Recovery ratios of the total 14C activity to the initial 14C activity were 97.9% at day 1, 86.4% at day 3, and 83.5% at day 7 of incubation. The result of the day 1 means that the emitted 14C-gas was almost 14CO2. At day 7 of incubation, about 16.5% of 14C was failed to recover. Even if the unknown 14C was gases other than 14CO2, the dominant chemical species of the emitted 14C-gas will be 14CO2, because the recovery ratio of the 14CO2 was 48.9% (¿16.5%). Sodium 2-bromoethane-sulfonate was used to ensure the emission of CH4, but there was no effect of the regent to the recovery ratio of 14CO2. Methane emission may be little under our experimental conditions. These results suggest that the dominant chemical species of the emitted 14C-gas from the flooded paddy soil samples was 14CO2.
We present a first-principles lattice dynamics for the assembly of the transition-metal (M)-encapsulated Sin clusters in amorphous phase (a-MSin), which has been proposed as a potential candidate for the channel material of the next-generation thin-film transistors (TFTs) [N. Uchida et al., Appl. Phys. Express1, 121502 (2008)]. The shape of calculated vibrational density of states (VDOS) curve of a-MoSi10 is similar to the counterpart of the high pressure phase of a-Si (HPA-Si) although the present systems are obtained as a result of pressure relaxation. Its radial distribution function (RDF) among Si themselves is characterized by the absence of a gap between the first and second shells, which is also the case in . We further present the VDOS of a-WSi10, whose curve shape is again similar to that of HPA-Si. A difference between a-MoSi10 and a-WSi10 is that the W-atom displacement components extracted from the vibration eigenvectors are mainly distributed over a lower frequency range (< ~ 150 cm-1) than the Mo counterpart (~ 150 cm-1 to ~ 300 cm-1). This may be attributed to a larger atomic mass of W than Mo.
We synthesized amorphous semiconductor films composed of Mo-encapsulating Si clusters (MoSin : n∼10) on solid substrates. The MoSi10 films had Si networks similar to hydrogenated amorphous Si and an optical gap of 1.5 eV. Electron spin resonance signals were not observed in the films indicating that dangling bonds of Si were terminated by Mo atoms. We fabricated thin-film-transistors using the MoSi10 film as a channel material. The electric field effect of the film was clearly observed. This suggests that the density of mid-gap states in the film is low enough for the field effect to occur.
We have demonstrated the dimerization of single-crystalline Ag nanocubes with reasonably high yields through stepwise integration by following three steps: the preparation of a single layer of densely packed Ag nanocubes on a substrate by modified convective assembly, the selective functionalization of the upper face of the Ag nanocubes with a hydrophobic DT-SAM using the μCP approach, and the spontaneous dimerization in a mixture of ethanol and water driven by enhanced anisotropic hydrophobic interparticle interactions. Face-selective functionalization using hydrophobic DT-SAM gave the nanocubes directionality with respect to their anisotropic interparticle interactions under an external hydrophilic environment. We conclude that the driving force that reduced the surface area of the hydrophobic faces is sufficient large to form an ordered assembly of nanosized building blocks in an aqueous solution. Both experimental and theoretical studies revealed that the 50-nm-diameter Ag nanocubes dimers with a ca. 3.3 nm gap at their junction exhibited two plasmon peaks centered at 446 nm and 600 nm, which contributed to transverse and longitudinal plasmon resonances, respectively. Elctromagnetic calculations based on the FDTD method clearly showed that a greater enhancement of the local field occurred, with an average amplitude of the electric field of 1.0×1015, at the fractal space between the aggregated Ag nanocubes when the dimer was illuminated under longitudinally polarized light.
For appropriate safety assessment of TRU waste disposal, gasification ratios and distribution coefficients (Kd) of 14C labeled [1, 2-14C] sodium acetate were determined by batch experiments for a Japanese paddy soil sample. Approximately 60% of the total added C-14 was released from the flooded paddy soil into the air as gas forms during 7 days shake-incubation periods. In the present study, the paddy soil was contacted with deionized water and well water, and the lower gasification ratio was found for the well water sample. The similar result was observed for the Kd values. Values of Kd varied from 51 to 138 mL g-1. The lower values were observed when the soil was contacted with well water. When the microorganisms in the samples were killed by glutaraldehyde, both gasification ratios and Kd values were nearly zero. These results suggested that microorganisms responsible for the behavior of C-14 in biosphere. In addition, water characteristics such as dissolved ions, pH and electrical conductivity would affect the gasification ratio and the Kd values.