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Weedy rice (WR) (Oryza spp.) is the most troublesome weed infesting rice paddies in Brazil. Several changes have occurred in this region regarding crop management, especially WR control based on the Clearfield® (CL) rice production system launched in 2003. This survey’s objective was to evaluate the WR infestation status by assessing the producers’ perception and the management practices used in southern Brazil after 18 yr of CL use in Brazil. Rice consultants and extension agents distributed a questionnaire to 213 producers in the Rio Grande do Sul (RS) and Santa Catarina (SC) states in the 2018 to 2019 growing season. In RS, most farms are larger than 150 ha, and farmers have adopted the CL system for more than 2 yr and use minimal or conventional tillage, permanent flooding, clomazone PRE tank-mixed with glyphosate at the rice spiking stage, and crop rotation with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] or pasture. In SC, rice farms are small, averaging from 20 to 30 ha, farmers predominantly plant pre-germinated rice and do not rotate rice with other crops, and roguing is practiced. Comparing both states, the CL system is used in 99.5% and 69.3% of the total surveyed rice areas in RS and SC, respectively. Imidazolinone-resistant WR is present in 68.4% and 26.6% of rice farms in RS and SC, respectively. Rice cultivation in Brazil is currently coexisting with WR with minimal integration of control methods. However, integrated practices can control this weed and are fundamental to the sustainability of systems based on herbicide-resistant rice cultivars.
As the IAU heads towards its second century, many changes have simultaneously transformed Astronomy and the human condition world-wide. Amid the amazing recent discoveries of exoplanets, primeval galaxies, and gravitational radiation, the human condition on Earth has become blazingly interconnected, yet beset with ever-increasing problems of over-population, pollution, and never-ending wars. Fossil-fueled global climate change has begun to yield perilous consequences. And the displacement of people from war-torn nations has reached levels not seen since World War II.
Small cell carcinoma of the head and neck is rare and has unique histopathological characteristics that make it difficult to diagnose and treat. In this report, the Japanese Lung Cancer Treatment Guidelines were adapted to treat three patients with small cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and outcomes evaluated.
There was one case each of stage I small cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity, stage IV-B small cell carcinoma of the ethmoid sinus, and stage IV-A small cell carcinoma of the submandibular gland. All patients underwent chemoradiotherapy and achieved a partial response.
Only case one underwent surgery after chemoradiotherapy; 31 months after treatment, this patient had suffered no recurrence. Case two died three months after treatment due to bone marrow metastasis. Case three had experienced no progression after 12 months of follow up.
In this small patient series, short-term results were equivalent to or better than usual treatment outcomes for small cell carcinoma of the lung.
The Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber collaboration recently reported a dark matter
limit obtained with a 10 liter time projection chamber filled with CF4 gas. The
10 liter detector was capable of 2D tracking (perpendicular to the drift direction) and 2D
fiducialization, and only used information from two CCD cameras when identifying tracks
and rejecting backgrounds. Since that time, the collaboration has explored the potential
benefits of photomultiplier tube and electronic charge readout to achieve 3D tracking, and
particle identification for background rejection. The latest results of this effort is
Unwoven cloth coated with 32 mg/g of a copolymer of N-benzyl-4-vinyl-pyridinium chloride and styrene was found to be effective in removing micro-organisms from water. In experiments demonstrating removal of Escherichia coli by filtration through ten sheets of the unwoven cloth, the rate of removal was 99·99% at a filtration rate of 2·6 cm/h, and remained at 99% even at a high filtration rate of 300 cm/h and a low influent concentration of the bacterial cells such as 10 cells/ml. The rate of removal tended to increase with a decrease in the influent bacterial concentration. Seven other bacteria and two yeasts were effectively removed by filtration through the unwoven cloth. Filtration through the unwoven cloth was also effective in removing spores of fungi from water but was not very effective in removing bacteriophage T4 from aqueous solution.
This study examined the local immune status and tumour marker expression in secretions and related tissue specimens from the laryngeal ventricle, comparing individuals with and without head and neck cancer. Laryngeal secretion and mucosal tissue specimens were collected during laryngeal microsurgery or surgical laryngectomy. The laryngeal secretions were found to contain immunological factors such as immunoglobulins G and A and secretory immunoglobulin A. A high level of the tumour marker Cyfra 21-1 was also detected in laryngeal secretions and mucosal tissue. Lows levels of secretory immunoglobulin A and Cyfra 21-1 were seen in the laryngeal mucosal tissue of controls and patients who had previously undergone radiation therapy. The level of secretory immunoglobulin A in laryngeal secretions closely correlated to the level of this immunoglobulin in mucosal tissue. These results indicate that local immunity is present in the human larynx; furthermore, it is strongly affected both by the presence of malignancy and by laryngeal cancer treatments such as irradiation.
We surveyed emm genotypes of group A streptococcus (GAS) isolates from patients with severe invasive streptococcal infections during 2001–2005 and compared their prevalence with that of the preceding 5 years. Genotype emm1 remained dominant throughout 2001 to 2005, but the frequency rate of this type decreased compared with the earlier period. Various other emm types have appeared in recent years indicating alterations in the prevalent strains causing severe invasive streptococcal infections. The cover of the new 26-valent GAS vaccine fell from 93·5% for genotypes of isolates from 1996–2000 to 81·8% in 2001–2005.
We propose a novel process module by using cryo-implantation and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Boron or arsenic ions were implanted into a 8 inch (100) Si substrate which was cooled by using liquid nitrogen. The substrate temperature was controlled to be below at -160°C during ion implantation. It was found that an amorphous layer was formed by boron or arsenic implantation and the amorphous layer was completely recovered to a single crystal after annealing at 900°C for 30sec. No dislocation was observed in the implanted layer. It was also found that the thermal diffusion of boron was suppressed by cryo-implantation. PN junction depth was found to be about 10-20% shallower than that of room temperature implantation. These results suggest that transient enhanced diffusion of boron can be reduced by suppressing vacancy migration toward the surface during implantation. Cryo-implantation was found to be very effective in reducing defects and PN junction leakage was successfully reduced by one order of magnitude as compared with room temperature implantation.
We review our capacitor technology using (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST) as a capacitor dielectric for dynamic random access memory (DRAM) application. Among a number of issues for BST capacitor process integration in DRAM cells, two important technologies are discussed. As an electrode technology, we propose All PErovskite Capacitor (APEC) technology, in which conducting perovskite oxide of SrRuO3 (SRO) is used as capacitor electrodes. For chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of BST, we propose In-situ Multi-Step (IMS) process, which is a sequential repetition of low temperature deposition of ultra thin BST film and crystallization in the same chamber. By using APEC technology and IMS CVD process of BST, we can simultaneously achieve good electrical characteristics (low leakage current and high permittivity) and good step coverage. The combination of APEC technology and IMS CVD process of BST is a promising BST capacitor process technology for future DRAMs.