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This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effects of flint maize processing methods on the estimation of the readily soluble fraction (a), the potentially degradable fraction (b) and the rate of degradation of b (c) for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and starch in the rumen; and (2) verify whether two different applications of in situ technique can be used to estimate in vivo DM, OM and starch digestibilities. Five ruminally cannulated Nellore bulls (265 ± 18.2 kg; 8 ± 1.0 mo) were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Three experimental diets were composed of 0.30 whole-plant maize silage, 0.10 supplement and 0.60 of one of the following processing methods: dry ground maize grain (DMG); high-moisture maize (HMM); reconstituted maize grain silage (RMG). Two additional diets were composed of 0.10 supplement, 0.80 snaplage and 0.10 stalklage (SNAP-80); or 0.10 supplement and 0.90 snaplage (SNAP-90). Digestibilities were estimated using in vivo procedure or predicted from in situ technique using a single 24 h incubation point or an equation proposed in previous literature. Diets based on ensiled grains presented greater (P < 0.05) fraction a and c and lower (P < 0.05) fraction b of DM, OM and starch compared to DMG. Both alternative use of in situ technique accurately estimated (P > 0.05) in vivo DM, OM and starch digestibilities. The results suggest that ensilage process may increase the availability of nutrients. The two different applications of in situ technique showed precision and accuracy to estimate in vivo digestibility.
This research communication addresses the hypothesis that, during the summer in the subtropics, natural tree shade helps to improve milk functional characteristics such as stability and acidity. Sixteen Holstein lactating cows were enrolled. The study consisted of three periods (pre-stress, heat stress and post-stress) based on allocating grazing cows into two treatments (with and without access to shade during the Heat Stress period). Overall THI during the trial was (mean ± se) 76.0 ± 3.4. Access to shade prevented the heat stress-related decrease in milk stability both in the ethanol and in the coagulation time test, as well as maintained milk acidity within an acceptable range (14 to 18°D).
To conduct international comparisons of self-reports, collateral reports, and cross-informant agreement regarding older adult psychopathology.
We compared self-ratings of problems (e.g. I cry a lot) and personal strengths (e.g. I like to help others) for 10,686 adults aged 60–102 years from 19 societies and collateral ratings for 7,065 of these adults from 12 societies.
Data were obtained via the Older Adult Self-Report (OASR) and the Older Adult Behavior Checklist (OABCL; Achenbach et al., 2004).
Cronbach’s alphas were .76 (OASR) and .80 (OABCL) averaged across societies. Across societies, 27 of the 30 problem items with the highest mean ratings and 28 of the 30 items with the lowest mean ratings were the same on the OASR and the OABCL. Q correlations between the means of the 0–1–2 ratings for the 113 problem items averaged across all pairs of societies yielded means of .77 (OASR) and .78 (OABCL). For the OASR and OABCL, respectively, analyses of variance (ANOVAs) yielded effect sizes (ESs) for society of 15% and 18% for Total Problems and 42% and 31% for Personal Strengths, respectively. For 5,584 cross-informant dyads in 12 societies, cross-informant correlations averaged across societies were .68 for Total Problems and .58 for Personal Strengths. Mixed-model ANOVAs yielded large effects for society on both Total Problems (ES = 17%) and Personal Strengths (ES = 36%).
The OASR and OABCL are efficient, low-cost, easily administered mental health assessments that can be used internationally to screen for many problems and strengths.
Knowing how energy intake is partitioned between maintenance, growth and egg production (EP) of birds makes it possible to structure models and recommend energy intakes based on differences in the BW, weight gain (WG) and EP on commercial quail farms. This research was a dose-response study to re-evaluate the energy partition for Japanese quails in the EP phase, based on the dilution technique to modify the retained energy (RE) of the birds. A total of 300 VICAMI® Japanese quail, housed in climatic chambers, were used from 16 weeks of age, with averages for BW of 185 g and EP of 78%, for 10 weeks. To modify the RE in the bird’s body, a qualitative dilution of dietary energy was used. Ten treatments (metabolisable energy levels) were distributed in completely randomised units, with six replicates of five quails per experimental unit. Metabolisable energy intake (MEI), egg mass (EM) and RE were expressed in kJ/kg0.67. The utilisation efficiency (kt) was estimated from the relationship between RE and MEI. The metabolisable energy for maintenance was given by RE = 0. The net energy requirement for WG was obtained from the relationship between RE in the BW as a function of the BW. The utilisation efficiency for EP (ko) was obtained from the relationship between EM and RE corrected MEI for maintenance and WG. Based on these efficiencies, the requirements for WG and EM were calculated. The energy intake by Japanese quails was partitioned according to the model: MEI = 569.8 × BW0.67 + 22 × WG + 13 × EM. The current study provides procedures and methods designed for quails as well as a simple and flexible model that can be quickly adopted by technicians and poultry companies.
The rate of passage (ROP) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) influences the exposure time of food to the digestion and absorption processes. Consequently, ROP affects the efficiency of nutrient utilization and energy from the diet. This study aimed to determine the physiological parameters that characterize the digestive response, such as first appearance time (FAT), ROP, mean retention time (MRT) and transit time (TT) in adult Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), and to evaluate the effects of sex, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) content in the diet and different types of markers on these parameters. In the first trial, we investigated the effects of sex and AMEn level (high- and low-energy diet) on the FAT parameter. Thirty-two male and 32 female Japanese quail were randomly allocated to 8 battery cages and assigned to 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 4 replicates of 4 birds for each treatment. To determine the FAT, ferric oxide (1%) was added to the diet, and the excreta of the quail was monitored until the first appearance of the marker. The results indicated significant differences (P < 0.05) in the FAT between males (100 min) and females (56 min), regardless of the AMEn content. In the second trial, thirty-two 32-week-old female Japanese quail in the laying phase were assigned to four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, in which the main independent variables were type of marker (Cr or Ti) and AMEn level (high- and low-energy diets). In order to determine ROP (ET1%), MRT and TT (ET100%), the markers (0.5%: Cr2O3 and 0.5%: TiO2) were added to the diets, and the excreta were collected for 750 min. The excretion times for 1% (ET1%), 25% (ET25%), 50% (ET50%), 75% (ET75%) and 100% (ET100%) were estimated using cumulative excretion curves. No effect was detected for the AMEn level (P > 0.05); however, the effect of different marker types was significant (P < 0.05). This difference increased with time and ET100% was estimated to occur at 59 min. The ROP was estimated to be 68 min. The TT was estimated to be 540 min using Cr and 599 min using Ti, with an average MRT value of 0930 h. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that Japanese quail digestion through the GIT can be dynamic and differ based on sex or marker type.
The description of the growth of the Japanese quails is necessary to characterize the genetic potential of these birds raised in different countries. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the genetic potential of Japanese quails by conducting a meta-analysis considering studies conducted in different countries. Only data about the subspecies Coturnix coturnix japonica were considered; studies regarding Coturnix coturnix coturnix were not examined. The criteria investigated were BW (W), age (t), year of publication and location of the study. Each set of genetic material within a publication was coded as one study. The Gompertz function was used to interpret the growth of laying quails; thus, each study was represented by Gompertz parameters. The W and t data were applied to estimate the values of Gompertz growth parameters, including BW at maturity (Wm), BW at birth (Wi), maturity rate (B) and inflection point (IP). The age at which the maximum growth rate was achieved (t*) was calculated considering the parameters Wm, Wi and B. To estimate these parameters, random regression was used to randomize the parameter Wm. The parameters estimated for each assay were used in exploratory, grouping, and principal component analyses. The values of Wi ranged from 4.1 to 11.6 g. The values of B ranged from 0.0393 to 0.1039/day, and consequently, the values of t* and IP ranged from 14 to 31 days and 9.21 to 31.03 g, respectively. These results show that there is considerable variability in the growth potential of Japanese quails. To better understand this variation, two groups were examined: Brazil and other countries, according to the grouping of Wi, Wm, B and t*; parameter B was the variable that presented the highest specificity, indicating that both groups modified the maturity rate. For the principal component analysis, the year of publication showed a relationship with the growth parameters but only for studies performed in Brazil. For studies carried out in other countries, the changes in growth parameters were not related to the year of publication. In Brazilian studies, there was a decrease in the maturity rate, but the weight at maturity was higher. Therefore, it appears that different strategies of genetic selection were adopted in Brazil compared to other countries.
Spontaneous abortion is considered a public health problem having several causes, including infections. Among the infectious agents, bacteria of the vaginal microbiota and Ureaplasma parvum have been associated with abortion, but their participation needs to be further elucidated. This study aims to evaluate the influence of Mollicutes on the development of spontaneous abortion. Women who underwent spontaneous abortion and those with normal birth (control) were studied. Samples of cervical mucus (CM) and placental tissue were collected to identify Mollicutes using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology. Eighty-nine women who had a miscarriage and 20 women with normal pregnancies were studied. The presence of Mollicutes in placental tissue increased the chance of developing miscarriage sevenfold. The prevalence of U. parvum in women who experienced spontaneous abortion was 66.3% in placental tissue. A positive association was observed between the detection of U. parvum in samples of placental tissue and abortion. There was a significant increase in microbial load in placental tissue for M. hominis, U. urealyticum and U. parvum compared to the control group. Detection of U. parvum in CM in pregnant women can ascend to the region of the placental tissue and trigger a spontaneous abortion.
In this work, a Ti–29Nb–13Ta–4.6Zr–xO Gum Metal with two significantly different oxygen levels (388 and 3570 ppm) was investigated during deformation. The alloys were compressed during in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction using three different strain rates, 10−4, 10−3, and 10−1 s−1, in order to evaluate their influence on phase stability and mechanical properties. The influence of oxygen on the deformation process was also studied. Deformation takes place by twinning, stress-induced, and reverse martensitic transformation and was observed, for some samples, a spinodal decomposition of the β-phase during elastic deformation. The mechanical properties were similar for the different rates employed when considering the same oxygen level. The alloy with a higher amount of oxygen, however, showed a substantial increase in mechanical strength, with a yield strength of around 680 MPa, which is more than three times higher than for the specimen with 388 ppm of oxygen.
This study presents two years of characterization of a warm temperate rhodolith bed in order to analyse how certain environmental changes influence the community ecology. The biomass of rhodoliths and associated species were analysed during this period and in situ experiments were conducted to evaluate the primary production, calcification and respiration of the dominant species of rhodoliths and epiphytes. The highest total biomass of rhodoliths occurred during austral winter. Lithothamnion crispatum was the most abundant rhodolith species in austral summer. Epiphytic macroalgae occurred only in January 2015, with Padina gymnospora being the most abundant. Considering associated fauna, the biomass of Mollusca increased from February 2015 to February 2016. Population densities of key reef fish species inside and around the rhodolith beds showed significant variations in time. The densities of grouper (carnivores/piscivores) increased in time, especially from 2015 to 2016. On the other hand, grunts (macroinvertebrate feeders) had a modest decrease over time (from 2014 to 2016). Other parameters such as primary production and calcification of L. crispatum were higher under enhanced irradiance, yet decreased in the presence of P. gymnospora. Community structure and physiological responses can be explained by the interaction of abiotic and biotic factors, which are driven by environmental changes over time. Biomass changes can indicate that herbivores play a role in limiting the growth of epiphytes, and this is beneficial to the rhodoliths because it decreases competition for environmental resources with fleshy algae.
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most widely distributed and highly expressed neurotrophin in the CNS. BDNF gene have been associated with increased risk psychiatric disorders. It has been described interaction between BDNF and serotonin system at a neural and genetic level. Neuroticism as a personality trait relevant in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has genetic inheritance and is associated with serotonergic dysfunction. Has been reported that BDNF Val66Met variant is associated with neuroticism in general population. The aim of this study is to test the association between Val66Met and neuroticism and evaluate if the presence of Val66Met allele interacts with polymorphism in promoter region of serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) for develop neuroticism in BPD. We evaluate personality with NEO PI R in 104 BPD subjects that did not meet criteria for axis I diagnoses and other personality disorders. Genetic analysis of BDNF was performed determining the presence of Val/Val Val/Met and Met/Met BDNF variants. 5-HTTLPR was performed determining the presence of L and S 5-HTTLPR alleles. Statistical analysis were tested with parametric and correlation method with Stata10. We did not found differences in neuroticism between BDNF variants, but when controlled by BDNF alleles we found that Met/Met modulate the expression of 5-HTTLPR, with S-carriers (LS+SS) having higher neuroticism than LL (F = 6.36, p = 0.0031). We found no differences in expression of 5-HTTLPR in other BDNF variants. We conclude that BDNF have a differential modulating effect of 5-HTTLPR in neuroticism in BPD.
After decades of neuroscientific research and taxonomic endeavour in psychiatry the quest for biologic markers specific enough to accommodate nosologic categories has not succeeded. Yet, neurophysiology and neuroimaging have developed pwoerful tools to investigate brain function. an immense amount of data has been accumulated regarding normal and pathologic information processing, cognition, emotion and other domains. Some have been correlated with genes underpinning diseases and are candidate endophenotypes. These stand at an intermediate level between genes and phenotype. They encompass several kinds of dysfunctions or abnormalities in brain structure. Rather than matching to singular diagnostic categories, as we devise them today, the same endophenotype is usually shared by distinct pathologic entities. Assuming tha they reflect specif dysfunctions this raises critical questions regarding the DSM way of classifying mental disorders and to the understanding of the neurobiologic phenomena underlying them. It is the purpose of this presentation to discuss these questions and review some of the data, including our own, concerning event-related potentials endophenotypes of psychosis with special focus on the schizophrenia-bipolar dichotomy and present.
Neuroticism is characterized by emotional instability and the tendency to experience negative emotions such as anger, anxiety and depressed mood. Subjects with borderline personality disorder (BPD) present this personality dimension as a temperamental core trait. There has been proposed that neuroticism can appropriately describe the most important characteristics of BPD. The polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) has been implicated in depression, anxiety and suicide. It is estimated that 5-HTTLPR polymorphism account to 7 to 9% of inherited variance of neuroticism in personality. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between neuroticism and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in BPD. We evaluate personality with NEO PI R inventory in 104 BPD subjects (76 female/28 male) that did not meet criteria for axis I diagnoses and other personality disorders. The genetic analysis of 5-HTTLPR were performed determining the presence of long and short alleles, subjects were grouped in long/long (LL) and S-carriers (LS+SS). Statistical analysis were tested with parametric and correlation method with Stata10. We found significant difference in neuroticism between the genotype groups (F = 8.57, p = 0.0004) and lower levels of neuroticism in LL than S-carriers. Female have higher neuroticism than male. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism explains 18.02% of inherited variance in neuroticism. The S-carriers had 11.9 times higher risk of presenting elevated neuroticism compared with LL. We conclude that there are relation between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and neuroticism in BPD. These results should contribute to the genetic study of BPD.
After decades of neuroscientific research and taxonomic endeavour in psychiatry the quest for biologic markers specific enough to accommodate nosologic categories has not succeeded. Yet, neurophysiology and neuroimaging have developed pwoerful tools to investigate brain function. An immense amount of data has been accumulated regarding normal and pathologic information processing, cognition, emotion and other domains. Some have been correlated with genes underpinning diseases and are candidate endophenotypes. These stand at an intermediate level between genes and phenotype. They encompass several kinds of dysfunctions or abnormalities in brain structure. Rather than matching to singular diagnostic categories, as we devise them today, the same endophenotype is usually shared by distinct pathologic entities. Assuming tha they reflect specif dysfunctions this raises critical questions regarding the DSM way of classifying mental disorders and to the understanding of the neurobiologic phenomena underlying them. It is the purpose of this presentation to discuss these questions and review some of the data, including our own, concerning event-related potentials endophenotypes of psychosis with special focus on the schizophrenia-bipolar dichotomy and present.
Telomeres are nucleoproteic structures arranged in a double helix, located at the end of chromosomes protecting them from deterioration. Each time a cell divides, the enzymatic machinery is unable to replicate integrity of telomeres and by this way, they became smaller, leading to cell aging and death. This shortening can be accelerated by inflammation, oxidative stress, radiation and toxins.
Several studies have shown that the adverse early-life experiences may also contribute to premature aging of the telomeres.
This work aims to make a review of the literature published about the impact of adverse life experiences in the shortening of telomeres and premature aging.
Several studies show that early childhood abuse contribute to accelerated shortening of telomeres, some suggest that there is a direct relationship between the severity and duration of abuse and the degree of shortening. Some studies also show that exposure to trauma in adulthood contributes to the accelerated aging, particularly in individuals who develop PTSD.
The interaction of the environment in the biology of the organism seems very deep and precocious. These findings will possible allow the reconstruction the of the biopsychosocial model, opening up new avenues for holistic understanding of the human being.
The literature recognizes differences in the prevalence, eating disorders (ED) symptoms and eating habits/behaviours by sex, but few studies in Portugal considered this subject.
To explore associations between sex, Body Mass Index (BMI), Eating Attitudes Test-25 (EAT-25) dimensions and items, the EAT-25 score dichotomized by the cutoff of 19 (a score equal/above 19 indicates “possible” ED) and, finally, some items about eating habits/behaviors; to verify possible associations between sociodemographic variables and items assessing eating habits/behaviours.
308 adolescents (M = 14,5 years; DP = 1,67; girls, n = 184, 59,7%) answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and the EAT-25.
There were no significant associations between sex, categorized and dimensional BMI, EAT-25 dimensions, categorized EAT-25 (cutoff of 19) and items assessing eating habits/behaviors. However, some items of the EAT-25 revealed a significant association with sex. Most adolescents from both sexes presented a score below the cutoff of 19. The frequency with which young people drink sodas and eat vegetables is associated with father's educational level. The frequency with which adolescents eat vegetables and fast food is associated with the school area they attend.
Eating habits/behaviours are not as much negative as documented in some literature. There does not seem to exist significant sex differences regarding eating attitudes, “possible” ED, BMI and eating habits/behaviours. However, there are sex differences regarding some of the specific symptoms of EAT-25. It is good to verify that both sexes reveal a low prevalence of “possible” eating behaviour disorder, although girls reveal a higher value.
The existence of a close relationship between the brain and the immune system has been demonstrated based on the results of several studies. Specific autonomic, neuroendocrine and neuropeptides mediators form the biological basis of this interrelationship, as has been demonstrated. The aim of this study is to review and systematize the current scientific knowledge related to the integration of these two systems, and it's clinical correlation.
Material and Methods
Review of the literature that addresses the theme
Studies in humans have shown that stress and low immunity have a close connection. Works continuously prove this relationship.
Discussion and Conclusion
Recently, the view that the interaction between the brain and the immune system is bidirectional has been preferred to that in which the direction of communication is exclusively from the brain to the immune system.
Legal drugs are changing the standards of drug consumption. These substances, labelled ‘not for human consumption’ are sold as incense, bath salts or pills, tricking sanitary authorities and Food and Drug Administration. Despite the absence of clinical trials, they grant a feeling of safety by being freely sold over the internet and smart-shops, and by ending the fear of control, since medical analyzes do not detect them. This makes them appealing and their popularity is steadily growing.
The authors aim to describe the results of analysis made to several legal drugs samples available online and its potential implications.
Review of PubMed’ studies between 2010 e 2012, using as key-words: ‘legal drugs’ and ‘purchase online legal highs’.
Studies of substance labeling found a lack of information, since 81,9% of the analyzed products did not report side effects and 86,3% did not specify medical interactions. A study done six months after mephedrone's prohibition in the U.K., showed that 62,5% of products still presented this substance, as well as unlisted components. Three subsequent studies revealed that the majority of the drugs listed the active principle on the label, but a significant percentage also showed unlisted substances.
In addition to the dangerous effects and interactions of the unlisted substances, consumers and sellers, misled by the nomenclature ‘legal’, may be committing an illegality when buying these drugs. Despite governmental efforts, the gap between the identification of a potentially harmful substance and its prohibition, makes difficult to prevent this potential flagellum.
The EPDS (Edinburg Postpartum Depression Scale) is a scale widely used for postpartum depression screening. Its application has been made usually in face to face situation. Because of problems that may hamper the contact with patients, alternative strategies for its application have been used, such as telephone contact. This study aims to establish the cutoff point of EPDS which provides the best sensitivity and specificity rates for telephone use.
It is a cross-sectional study, using data collected from a cohort of women followed in the third trimester of pregnancy and in the postpartum period in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. EPDS was applied by telephone on 176 women, of whom 147 were interviewed face to face. The SCID (Strutured Clinical Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV) data were correlated with the EPDS data, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated using ROC-curve.
The diagnosis of major depressive episode was confirmed by the SCID in 77 participants. For EPDS values ≥ 10 the sensitivity rate was of 70.1%, specificity of 74.3%, positive predictive value of 75.0% and negative predictive value of 69.3%. With a EPDS cutoff point ≥ 12, sensitivity was 55.8%, specificity was 84.3% and positive predictive value was 79.6%.
The cutoff point of 10 was more appropriate than the cutoff point of 12 when using EPDS by telephone, as a measure of population screening for postpartum depression.