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To date, nearly all research of subtype differences in ADHD has been performed in children and only two studies, with conflicting results, have covered this subject in adults with ADHD.
This study examined subtype differences in the clinical presentation of ADHD-symptoms, related psychopathological features, psychosocial functioning and comorbid psychiatric disorders in adults with ADHD.
One hundred and eighteen adults with ADHD, diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, and a population based control group underwent diagnostic evaluations with clinical interviews for ADHD, DSM-IV disorders and demographic features. Comparisons were made between ADHD combined type (n = 64), predominantly inattentive type (n = 30) and predominantly inattentive type, anamnestically combined type (n = 24), relative to each other and to a community control group (n = 70).
The four groups did not differ in age and gender composition. All ADHD groups had significantly less education, were significantly more often unemployed and reported significantly more lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls. In comparison to each other, the three ADHD groups differed mainly in core symptoms and the pattern of comorbid psychiatric disorders, whereas no prominent differences in associated psychopathological features and most of the assessed psychosocial functions could be found. Patients with ADHD combined type and inattentive, anamnestically combined type both presented with significantly more hyperactive symptoms and also showed more impulsive symptoms than those with the predominantly inattentive type. With a similar overall lifetime psychiatric comorbidity in the three groups, patients with ADHD combined type and inattentive, anamnestically combined type suffered significantly more from lifetime substance use disorders than patients with predominantly inattentive type.
Our results clearly show impaired psychosocial adjustment and elevated risk for additional psychiatric disorders in adults with all subtypes of ADHD, compared to healthy controls. They provide preliminary evidence that in adult ADHD there might be a subgroup of patients, which is classified as predominantly inattentive subtype according to current diagnostic criteria, but which in its clinical presentation is in between ADHD combined and inattentive type. Further studies are needed to evaluate this finding and to gain a clear picture of its validity.
The equilibrium condition for a liquid droplet in contact with a smooth, homogeneous, isotropic, non-deformable surface is given by the celebrated Young-Dupre equation1. This equation is based on the balance of the horizontal forces acting on the droplet. The idealised assumptions involved in arriving at the equation are seldom met in real experiments. Recently, Saiz et al have discussed the case of ridging of the solid at the three phase boundary (solid-liquid-vapour boundary) as a requirement for a stable three-phase co-existence. The wetting of anorthite on. sapphire substrates of different orientations have been studied earlier. In the present study, the wetting of anorthite liquid on m-plane of sapphire has been studied. The m-plane of sapphire is known to reconstruct in to two sets of facets and thus provides an interesting opportunity to study the wetting of liquid on a nonsmooth surface which contains linear patches with different surface energies.
Interfaces play an important role in determining the effect of electric fields on the mechanism of the formation of spinel by solid-state reaction. The reaction occurs by the movement of phase boundaries but the rate of this movement can be affected by grain boundaries in the reactants or in the reaction product. Only by understanding these relationships will it be possible to engineer their behavior. As a particular example of such a study, Mgln2O4 can be formed by the reaction between single-crystal MgO substrate and a thin film of In2O3with or without an applied electric field. High-resolution backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used to obtain complementary chemical and crystallographic information.