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As a result of the wildfire that engulfed Fort McMurray (FMM), Alberta, Canada in May 2016, over 90,000 residents were evacuated from the city. Approximately 2400 homes, or 10% of the housing stock, were destroyed in Fort McMurray. About 200,000 hectors of forest were destroyed by the fire, which reached into Saskatchewan. In the aftermath of a major disaster, a community’s infrastructure is disrupted, and psychological, economic, and environmental effects can last for many years.
Intensive research was conducted in Fort McMurray five years after the wildfire disaster to determine the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among residents of the community and to determine the demographic, clinical, and other risk factors of probable MDD and PTSD.
An online questionnaire administered via REDCap was used to collect data in a quantitative cross-sectional study between 24 April and 2 June 2021. Patients were asked to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) in order to assess the presence of symptoms associated with MDD. An assessment of likely PTSD in respondents was conducted using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-C). In this study, descriptive, univariate, and multivariate regression analyses were conducted.
Out of 249 people who accessed the survey link, 186 completed it (74.7% response rate). There was a median age of 42 among the subscribers. A majority of the sample consisted of 159 (85.5%) females; 98 (52.7%) over the age of 40; 136 (71%) in a relationship; and 175 (94.1%) employed. Our study sample had an overall prevalence of 45.0% (76) of MDD symptoms. The multivariate logistic regression model revealed four variables that were independently associated with MDD symptoms, including being unemployed, diagnosed with MDD, taking sedative-hypnotics, and willingness to receive mental health counseling. A total of 39.6% of our respondents (65) reported having likely PTSD. Three independent variables: received a mental health depression diagnosis from a health professional, would like to receive mental health counseling, and have only limited or no support from familycontributed significantly to the model for predicting likely PTSD among respondents while controlling the other factors in the regression model.
The findings of this study indicate that unemployment, the use of sleeping pills, the presence of a previous depression diagnosis, and the willingness to seek mental health counseling are significant factors associated with the increase in the prevalence of MDD and PTSD following wildfires. Support from family members may prevent these conditions from developing.
As a result of the floods in Fort McMurray (FMM) and the surrounding area in 2020, more than $228 million in insured damage was sustained, over 1200 structures were damaged, and more than 13,000 people were evacuated from their homes.
The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms among the population of FMM one year after the flood in 2020 and the risk predictors associated with such symptoms.
In order to collect sociodemographic, clinical, and flood-related information from residents of FMM via REDCap, an online quantitative cross-sectional survey was administered between April 24 and June 02, 2021. Respondents were assessed for probable PTSD using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-C).
An overall response rate of 74.7% was achieved among 186 of 249 respondents. The prevalence of likely post-traumatic stress disorder was 39.6% (65). There was a significantly increased likelihood of developing PTSD symptoms in respondents with a history of depression (OR= 5.71; 95% CI: 1.68 - 19.36). As well, disaster responders experiencing limited and no family support after the disaster were more likely to report PTSD symptoms (OR= 2.87; 95% CI: 1.02 - 8.05) and (OR= 2.87; 95% CI: 1.06 - 7.74), respectively.
As a result of our study, we found that those who had a history of depression and had sought health counseling were significantly more likely to develop PTSD symptoms following flooding, while those with family support were less likely to suffer from PTSD symptoms. There is a need for further studies to investigate the relationship between the need for counseling and the presentation of potential symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.
The target backsheath field acceleration mechanism is one of the main mechanisms of laser-driven proton acceleration (LDPA) and strongly depends on the comprehensive performance of the ultrashort ultra-intense lasers used as the driving sources. The successful use of the SG-II Peta-watt (SG-II PW) laser facility for LDPA and its applications in radiographic diagnoses have been manifested by the good performance of the SG-II PW facility. Recently, the SG-II PW laser facility has undergone extensive maintenance and a comprehensive technical upgrade in terms of the seed source, laser contrast and terminal focus. LDPA experiments were performed using the maintained SG-II PW laser beam, and the highest cutoff energy of the proton beam was obviously increased. Accordingly, a double-film target structure was used, and the maximum cutoff energy of the proton beam was up to 70 MeV. These results demonstrate that the comprehensive performance of the SG-II PW laser facility was improved significantly.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Our long-term goal is to understand how both genetic and environmental (GxE) factors contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) so that we may potentially intervene in disease pathogenesis and design therapies to address functional deficiencies. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Our studies use a novel GxE model to determine how cephalosporin antibiotic exposure alters the gut microbiome, hippocampal neurogenesis, and behavior in the genetically vulnerable 16p11.2 microdeletion (16pDel) mouse. This mouse models one of the most frequently observed genetic risk variants implicated in NDDs, including ~1% of autism diagnoses. Wildtype and 16pDel littermates were exposed to saline or the cephalosporin, cefdinir, from postnatal days 5-9. We quantified changes in gut microbiota composition using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and utilized immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and bulk RNA gene sequencing to assess changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. An additional cohort of saline or cefdinir-exposed mice were subjected to a behavioral battery to assess changes in sociability and anxiety. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We leveraged the next-generation microbiome bioinformatics platform, Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology 2 (QIIME2) to analyze 16S rRNA gene sequencing datasets of P13 cecal samples from saline- and cefdinir-exposed mice. We found successful perturbations to the gut microbiome following early life cefdinir exposure. Further, we found a robust 50% reduction in hippocampal cyclin E protein in cefdinir-exposed 16pDel male mice, which was replicated in a second independent experiment. This reduction extended to the S-phase cell entry and general stem cell population, quantified by EdU+ and Ki67+ cell numbers, respectively. Lastly, in our first cohort of mice for behavioral studies, we found reduced sociability and increased anxiety-like behaviors in cefdinir-exposed mice. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings from this GxE model will provide mechanistic insights into the causes of NDDs; they may inform practice guidelines so as to reduce this environmental exposure; and may suggest interventions like probiotics for those at risk in order to overcome altered gut microbiome composition and restore hippocampal neurogenesis defects.
Postpartum and peripartum depression are debilitating disorders that impact the mother and their ability to care for their children’s emotional, social, and physical needs. Current treatments include psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and electroconvulsive therapy. These treatments are moderately effective or come with side effects that can negatively impact mother and child. As a result, many mothers view some treatments as unacceptable while pregnant or breastfeeding. Over the last decade, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has shown promise as an effective and safe treatment option for postpartum and peripartum depression. However, little is known regarding people’s knowledge and attitudes towards this emerging technology, with no research assessing this in Canada.
We aim to identify gaps in knowledge and to assess attitudes toward rTMS as a treatment for postpartum and peripartum depression in mental health professionals, patients, and the general public living in Canada.
A mixed methods study design will be employed. The qualitative portion will consist of individual semi-structured interviews. An inductive thematic analysis will be completed. The quantitative portion will consist of an anonymous, self-administered survey shared through REDCap. Focus groups with rTMS experts will be conducted to inform survey creation.
No resulst at this time.
Understanding gaps in knowledge and attitudes toward rTMS is the first step toward ensuring that everyone is well informed and able to access safe and effective treatments. With limited treatment options available to a postpartum and/or peripartum depression patients being well informed on all treatments is crucial towards accessing treatments that best suit their needs.
The great demographic pressure brings tremendous volume of beef demand. The key to solve this problem is the growth and development of Chinese cattle. In order to find molecular markers conducive to the growth and development of Chinese cattle, sequencing was used to determine the position of copy number variations (CNVs), bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the function of ZNF146 gene, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for CNV genotyping and one-way analysis of variance was used for association analysis. The results showed that there exists CNV in Chr 18: 47225201-47229600 (5.0.1 version) of ZNF146 gene through the early sequencing results in the laboratory and predicted ZNF146 gene was expressed in liver, skeletal muscle and breast cells, and was amplified or overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, which promoted the development of tumour through bioinformatics. Therefore, it is predicted that ZNF146 gene affects the proliferation of muscle cells, and then affects the growth and development of cattle. Furthermore, CNV genotyping of ZNF146 gene was three types (deletion type, normal type and duplication type) by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). The association analysis results showed that ZNF146-CNV was significantly correlated with rump length of Qinchuan cattle, hucklebone width of Jiaxian red cattle and heart girth of Yunling cattle. From the above results, ZNF146-CNV had a significant effect on growth traits, which provided an important candidate molecular marker for growth and development of Chinese cattle.
We report the experimental results of the commissioning phase in the 10 PW laser beamline of the Shanghai Superintense Ultrafast Laser Facility (SULF). The peak power reaches 2.4 PW on target without the last amplifying during the experiment. The laser energy of 72 ± 9 J is directed to a focal spot of approximately 6 μm diameter (full width at half maximum) in 30 fs pulse duration, yielding a focused peak intensity around 2.0 × 1021 W/cm2. The first laser-proton acceleration experiment is performed using plain copper and plastic targets. High-energy proton beams with maximum cut-off energy up to 62.5 MeV are achieved using copper foils at the optimum target thickness of 4 μm via target normal sheath acceleration. For plastic targets of tens of nanometers thick, the proton cut-off energy is approximately 20 MeV, showing ring-like or filamented density distributions. These experimental results reflect the capabilities of the SULF-10 PW beamline, for example, both ultrahigh intensity and relatively good beam contrast. Further optimization for these key parameters is underway, where peak laser intensities of 1022–1023 W/cm2 are anticipated to support various experiments on extreme field physics.
Frequent freezing injury greatly influences winter wheat production; thus, effective prevention and a command of agricultural production are vital. The freezing injury monitoring method integrated with ‘3S’ (geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning system (GPS) and remote sensing (RS)) technology has an unparalleled advantage. Using HuanJing (HJ)-1A/1B satellite images of a winter wheat field in Shanxi Province, China plus a field survey, crop types and winter wheat planting area were identified through repeated visual interpretations of image information and spatial analyses conducted in GIS. Six vegetation indices were extracted from processed HJ-1A/1B satellite images to determine whether the winter wheat suffered from freezing injury and its degree of severity and recovery, using change vector analysis (CVA), the freeze injury representative vegetation index and the combination of the two methods, respectively. Accuracy of the freezing damage classification results was verified by determining the impact of freezing damage on yield and quantitative analysis. The CVA and the change of normalized difference vegetation index (ΔNDVI) monitoring results were different so a comprehensive analysis of the combination of CVA and ΔNDVI was performed. The area with serious freezing injury covered 0.9% of the total study area, followed by the area of no freezing injury (3.5%), moderate freezing injury (10.2%) and light freezing injury (85.4%). Of the moderate and serious freezing injury areas, 0.2% did not recover; 1.2% of the no freezing injury and light freezing injury areas showed optimal recovery, 15.6% of the light freezing injury and moderate freezing injury areas showed poor recovery, and the remaining areas exhibited general recovery.
To identify the clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of relapsing polychondritis patients with airway involvement.
Twenty-eight patients with relapsing polychondritis, hospitalised in the First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University between April 2011 and April 2021, were retrospectively analysed.
Fifty per cent of relapsing polychondritis patients with airway involvement had a lower risk of ear and ocular involvement. Relapsing polychondritis patients with airway involvement had a longer time-to-diagnosis (p < 0.001), a poorer outcome following glucocorticoid combined with immunosuppressant treatment (p = 0.004), and a higher recurrence rate than those without airway involvement (p = 0.004). The rates of positive findings on chest computed tomography and bronchoscopy in relapsing polychondritis patients with airway involvement were 88.9 per cent and 85.7 per cent, respectively. Laryngoscopy analysis showed that 66.7 per cent of relapsing polychondritis patients had varying degrees of mucosal lesions.
For relapsing polychondritis patients with airway involvement, drug treatment should be combined with local airway management.
We report on experimental observation of non-laminar proton acceleration modulated by a strong magnetic field in laser irradiating micrometer aluminum targets. The results illustrate the coexistence of ring-like and filamentation structures. We implement the knife edge method into the radiochromic film detector to map the accelerated beams, measuring a source size of 30–110 μm for protons of more than 5 MeV. The diagnosis reveals that the ring-like profile originates from low-energy protons far off the axis whereas the filamentation is from the near-axis high-energy protons, exhibiting non-laminar features. Particle-in-cell simulations reproduced the experimental results, showing that the short-term magnetic turbulence via Weibel instability and the long-term quasi-static annular magnetic field by the streaming electric current account for the measured beam profile. Our work provides direct mapping of laser-driven proton sources in the space-energy domain and reveals the non-laminar beam evolution at featured time scales.
A novel paediatric disease, multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children, has emerged during the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic.
To describe the short-term evolution of cardiac complications and associated risk factors in patients with multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children.
Retrospective single-centre study of confirmed multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children treated from 29 March, 2020 to 1 September, 2020. Cardiac complications during the acute phase were defined as decreased systolic function, coronary artery abnormalities, pericardial effusion, or mitral and/or tricuspid valve regurgitation. Patients with or without cardiac complications were compared with chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and Wilcoxon rank sum.
Thirty-nine children with median (interquartile range) age 7.8 (3.6–12.7) years were included. Nineteen (49%) patients developed cardiac complications including systolic dysfunction (33%), valvular regurgitation (31%), coronary artery abnormalities (18%), and pericardial effusion (5%). At the time of the most recent follow-up, at a median (interquartile range) of 49 (26–61) days, cardiac complications resolved in 16/19 (84%) patients. Two patients had persistent mild systolic dysfunction and one patient had persistent coronary artery abnormality. Children with cardiac complications were more likely to have higher N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (p = 0.01), higher white blood cell count (p = 0.01), higher neutrophil count (p = 0.02), severe lymphopenia (p = 0.05), use of milrinone (p = 0.03), and intensive care requirement (p = 0.04).
Patients with multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children had a high rate of cardiac complications in the acute phase, with associated inflammatory markers. Although cardiac complications resolved in 84% of patients, further long-term studies are needed to assess if the cardiac abnormalities (transient or persistent) are associated with major cardiac events.
Manure is a primary source of methane (CH4) emissions into the atmosphere. A large proportion of CH4 from manure is emitted during storage, but this varies with storage methods. In this research, we tested whether covering a manure heap with plastic reduces CH4 emission during a short-term composting process. A static chamber method was used to detect the CH4 emission rate and the change of the physicochemical properties of cattle manure which was stored either uncovered (treatment UNCOVERED) or covered with plastic (treatment COVERED) for 30-day periods during the four seasons? The dry matter content of the COVERED treatment was significantly less than the UNCOVERED treatment (P < 0.01), and the C/N ratio of the COVERED treatment significantly greater than the UNCOVERED treatment (P > 0.05) under high temperature. In the UNCOVERED treatment, average daily methane (CH4) emissions were in the order summer > spring > autumn > winter. CH4 emissions were positively correlated with the temperature (R2 = 0.52, P < 0.01). Compared to the UNCOVERED treatment, the daily average CH4 emission rates from COVERED treatment manure were less in the first 19 days of spring, 13 days of summer, 10 days of autumn and 30 days of winter. In summary, covering the manure pile with plastic reduces the evaporation of water during storage; and in winter, long-term covering with plastic film reduces the CH4 emissions during the storage of manure.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents an unprecedented threat to mental health. Herein, we assessed the impact of COVID-19 on subthreshold depressive symptoms and identified potential mitigating factors.
Participants were from Depression Cohort in China (ChiCTR registry number 1900022145). Adults (n = 1722) with subthreshold depressive symptoms were enrolled between March and October 2019 in a 6-month, community-based interventional study that aimed to prevent clinical depression using psychoeducation. A total of 1506 participants completed the study in Shenzhen, China: 726 participants, who completed the study between March 2019 and January 2020 (i.e. before COVID-19), comprised the ‘wave 1’ group; 780 participants, who were enrolled before COVID-19 and completed the 6-month endpoint assessment during COVID-19, comprised ‘wave 2’. Symptoms of depression, anxiety and insomnia were assessed at baseline and endpoint (i.e. 6-month follow-up) using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), respectively. Measures of resilience and regular exercise were assessed at baseline. We compared the mental health outcomes between wave 1 and wave 2 groups. We additionally investigated how mental health outcomes changed across disparate stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in China, i.e. peak (7–13 February), post-peak (14–27 February), remission plateau (28 February−present).
COVID-19 increased the risk for three mental outcomes: (1) depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–1.62); (2) anxiety (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.16–1.88) and (3) insomnia (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.07–1.77). The highest proportion of probable depression and anxiety was observed post-peak, with 52.9% and 41.4%, respectively. Greater baseline resilience scores had a protective effect on the three main outcomes (depression: OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.19–0.37; anxiety: OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.14–0.33 and insomnia: OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.11–0.28). Furthermore, regular physical activity mitigated the risk for depression (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.79–0.99).
The COVID-19 pandemic exerted a highly significant and negative impact on symptoms of depression, anxiety and insomnia. Mental health outcomes fluctuated as a function of the duration of the pandemic and were alleviated to some extent with the observed decline in community-based transmission. Augmenting resiliency and regular exercise provide an opportunity to mitigate the risk for mental health symptoms during this severe public health crisis.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
A disruption database characterizing the current quench of disruptions with ITER-like tungsten divertor has been developed on EAST. It provides a large number of plasma parameters describing the predisruptive plasma, current quench time, eddy current, and mitigation by massive impurity injection, which shows that the current quench time strongly depends on magnetic energy and post-disruption electron temperature. Further, the energy balance and magnetic energy dissipation during the current quench phase has been well analysed. Magnetic energy is also demonstrated to be dissipated mainly by ohmic reheating and inductive coupling, and both of the two channels have great effects on current quench time. Also, massive gas injection is an efficient method to speed up the current quench and increase the fraction of impurity radiation.
Antarctica's ice shelves modulate the grounded ice flow, and weakening of ice shelves due to climate forcing will decrease their ‘buttressing’ effect, causing a response in the grounded ice. While the processes governing ice-shelf weakening are complex, uncertainties in the response of the grounded ice sheet are also difficult to assess. The Antarctic BUttressing Model Intercomparison Project (ABUMIP) compares ice-sheet model responses to decrease in buttressing by investigating the ‘end-member’ scenario of total and sustained loss of ice shelves. Although unrealistic, this scenario enables gauging the sensitivity of an ensemble of 15 ice-sheet models to a total loss of buttressing, hence exhibiting the full potential of marine ice-sheet instability. All models predict that this scenario leads to multi-metre (1–12 m) sea-level rise over 500 years from present day. West Antarctic ice sheet collapse alone leads to a 1.91–5.08 m sea-level rise due to the marine ice-sheet instability. Mass loss rates are a strong function of the sliding/friction law, with plastic laws cause a further destabilization of the Aurora and Wilkes Subglacial Basins, East Antarctica. Improvements to marine ice-sheet models have greatly reduced variability between modelled ice-sheet responses to extreme ice-shelf loss, e.g. compared to the SeaRISE assessments.
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common pathogen associated with nosocomial infections and is characterised serologically by capsular polysaccharide (K) and lipopolysaccharide O antigens. We surveyed a total of 348 non-duplicate K. pneumoniae clinical isolates collected over a 1-year period in a tertiary care hospital, and determined their O and K serotypes by sequencing of the wbb Y and wzi gene loci, respectively. Isolates were also screened for antimicrobial resistance and hypervirulent phenotypes; 94 (27.0%) were identified as carbapenem-resistant (CRKP) and 110 (31.6%) as hypervirulent (hvKP). isolates fell into 58 K, and six O types, with 92.0% and 94.2% typeability, respectively. The predominant K types were K14K64 (16.38%), K1 (14.66%), K2 (8.05%) and K57 (5.46%), while O1 (46%), O2a (27.9%) and O3 (11.8%) were the most common. CRKP and hvKP strains had different serotype distributions with O2a:K14K64 (41.0%) being the most frequent among CRKP, and O1:K1 (26.4%) and O1:K2 (17.3%) among hvKP strains. Serotyping by gene sequencing proved to be a useful tool to inform the clinical epidemiology of K. pneumoniae infections and provides valuable data relevant to vaccine design.