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The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
Hairy buttercup and cutleaf evening primrose are winter annual weeds that have become more problematic for winter wheat growers in the southern Great Plains and the midsouthern United States in recent years. Little research exists on which to base recommendations for controlling hairy buttercup in wheat, and little research has been published on cutleaf evening primrose control in recent years. With growing concerns of increased herbicide resistance among winter annual weeds, incorporating new herbicide sites of action has become necessary. The objective of this study was to assess halauxifen-methyl as a novel herbicide to control these two problematic winter annual broadleaf weeds in winter wheat in Mississippi and Oklahoma. Studies were conducted across four site-years in Mississippi and one site-year in Oklahoma comparing 15 herbicide programs with and without halauxifen-methyl. Hairy buttercup and cutleaf evening-primrose control was the greatest when a synthetic auxin was combined with an acetolactate synthase–inhibiting herbicide. Treatments including halauxifen-methyl resulted in the greatest control of hairy buttercup, whereas a synthetic auxin herbicide plus chlorsulfuron and metsulfuron resulted in the greatest control of cutleaf evening primrose. Halauxifen-methyl is an effective addition for control of winter annual broadleaf weeds like hairy buttercup and cutleaf evening primrose in winter wheat.
To understand those factors which facilitate or hinder resolution of Mental Health Crises in order to inform future development of Crisis Resolution and Home Treatment (CRHT) Teams.
Method & Design
Qualitative Interview study conducted by service users trained in research techniques. Home based interviews were conducted with 36 randomly selected patients who had used the services of one of nine CRHT teams across the East Midlands, United Kingdom, which serves a catchment population of 1.2 million people during a two week census period in October 2007.
Participants reported different levels of satisfaction with the treatment and professional responses they received. We identified three themes leading to successful resolution of mental health crises: being enabled to feel safe, to feel accepted and to feel understood. Participants did not identify specific treatment interventions such as medication or formal psychotherapy as important contributors to recovery. Unhelpful experiences included professional responses which resulted in participants feeling misunderstood or ignored, unsafe, vulnerable or anxious, or that they were being judged.
The quality of relationship between the patient and members of the CRHT team is critical to any therapeutic effect. Therapeutic effect is optimum when it is based upon an adult to adult relationship which can provide a holding function allowing the service user to feel safe, accepted and understood while the crisis resolves. These findings have important implications for commissioning and managing such teams, and theoretical implications for medical practice morewidely.
Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) can reduce the production efficiency and impair the welfare of cattle, potentially in all production systems. The aim of this study was to characterise measurable postmortem observations from divergently managed intensive beef finishing farms with high rates of concentrate feeding. At the time of slaughter, we obtained samples from 19 to 20 animals on each of 6 beef finishing units (119 animals in total) with diverse feeding practices, which had been subjectively classified as being high risk (three farms) or low risk (three farms) for SARA on the basis of the proportions of barley, silage and straw in the ration. We measured the concentrations of histamine, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lactate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in ruminal fluid, LPS and SCFA in caecal fluid. We also took samples of the ventral blind sac of the rumen for histopathology, immunohistopathology and gene expression. Subjective assessments were made of the presence of lesions on the ruminal wall, the colour of the lining of the ruminal wall and the shape of the ruminal papillae. Almost all variables differed significantly and substantially among farms. Very few pathological changes were detected in any of the rumens examined. The animals on the high-risk diets had lower concentrations of SCFA and higher concentrations of lactate and LPS in the ruminal fluid. Higher LPS concentrations were found in the caecum than the rumen but were not related to the risk status of the farm. The diameters of the stratum granulosum, stratum corneum and of the vasculature of the papillae, and the expression of the gene TLR4 in the ruminal epithelium were all increased on the high-risk farms. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-1β and the counts of cluster of differentiation 3 positive and major histocompatibility complex class two positive cells were lower on the high-risk farms. High among-farm variation and the unbalanced design inherent in this type of study in the field prevented confident assignment of variation in the dependent variables to individual dietary components; however, the CP percentage of the total mixed ration DM was the factor that was most consistently associated with the variables of interest. Despite the strong effect of farm on the measured variables, there was wide inter-animal variation.
The public health threat posed by zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi appears to be growing: it is increasingly reported across South East Asia, and is the leading cause of malaria in Malaysian Borneo. Plasmodium knowlesi threatens progress towards malaria elimination as aspects of its transmission, such as spillover from wildlife reservoirs and reliance on outdoor-biting vectors, may limit the effectiveness of conventional methods of malaria control. The development of new quantitative approaches that address the ecological complexity of P. knowlesi, particularly through a focus on its primary reservoir hosts, will be required to control it. Here, we review what is known about P. knowlesi transmission, identify key knowledge gaps in the context of current approaches to transmission modelling, and discuss the integration of these approaches with clinical parasitology and geostatistical analysis. We highlight the need to incorporate the influences of fine-scale spatial variation, rapid changes to the landscape, and reservoir population and transmission dynamics. The proposed integrated approach would address the unique challenges posed by malaria as a zoonosis, aid the identification of transmission hotspots, provide insight into the mechanistic links between incidence and land use change and support the design of appropriate interventions.
We have used high-resolution, HST WFC3/IR, near-infrared imaging to conduct a detailed bulge-disk decomposition of the morphologies of ≃ 200 of the most massive (M* > 1011 M⊙) galaxies at 1 < z < 3 in the CANDELS-UDS field. We find that, while such massive galaxies at low redshift are generally bulge-dominated, at redshifts 1<z<2 they are predominantly mixed bulge+disk systems, and by z > 2 they are mostly disk-dominated. Interestingly, we find that while most of the quiescent galaxies are bulge-dominated, a significant fraction (25–40%) of the most quiescent galaxies, have disk-dominated morphologies. Thus, our results suggest that the physical mechanisms which quench star-formation activity are not simply connected to those responsible for the morphological transformation of massive galaxies.
Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) has been used to track changes in total body water (TBW). Accurate TBW estimations can be influenced by both methodological and biological factors. One methodological variation that contributes to BIS TBW errors is the electrode placement. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reproducibility and validity of fixed-distance electrode placements (5 cm) with the standard single-site electrode placements. Twenty-nine subjects (fifteen men and fourteen women) participated in the reproducibility study, while sixty-nine subjects (thirty-three men and thirty-six women) participated in the validity study. The reproducibility study included two measurements that were taken 24 h apart, while the validity study consisted of a 12-week exercise intervention with measurements taken at weeks 1 and 12. TBW was estimated using BIS and 2H techniques. Reproducibility results indicated that fixed-distance electrodes reduced the day-to-day standard error of the measurement in men (from 1·13 to 0·81 litres) but not in women (0·47 litres). sem values were lower for women than for men, suggesting that BIS TBW estimates are sex dependent. Validity results produced similar accurate findings (mean difference < 0·21 litres). However, fixed-distance electrodes improved delta TBW errors (mean difference improvements>0·04 litres in men, women, and men and women combined). When tracking changes in TBW, fixed-distance electrodes may reduce reproducibility errors and allow for smaller changes to be detected. However, the reduction of reproducibility errors may be greater for men than for women. Therefore, reproducibility calculations should be based on the sex of the sample population.
In the context of the pursuit of a dilute magnetic semiconductor for spintronic applications, a set of GaMnN samples with varying Mn concentration and Si or Mg co-doping was investigated by optical and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The results clearly demonstrate how the charge state of Mn is changed between 2+, 3+ and 4+ by Mg and Si co-doping. For p-type GaMnN we show that the introduction of the Mn3+/4+ donor can be compensated by Mg co-doping lowering the Fermi energy below the Mn3+/4+ level. While our results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the infrared photoluminescence appearing in GaMnN upon Mg doping originates from Mn4+, an unambiguous proof is still to be presented. Under this assumption, our measurements show that the Mn4+ center must be excited via an extra-center process at 2.54 eV.
In the context of ferromagnetic spin-coupling in dilute magnetic semiconductors, we present optical investigations on Mg co-doped GaMnN and Fe doped GaN. A complex luminescence feature occurring in Mg co-doped GaMnN around 1 eV was previously attributed to the internal 4T2(F)—4T1(F) transition of Mn4+ involved in different complexes. Selective excitation studies indicate the presence of at least three different complexes. Photoluminescence excitation spectra suggest that the internal Mn3+ transition may represent an excitation mechanism. Magneto photoluminescence spectra indicate equal g values for the ground and excited state. Low temperature infrared absorption spectra of Fe doped GaN allow to unambiguously establish the electronic structure of the Fe2+ center in GaN. Our results suggest that the Fe2+(5T2) state is stabilized against Jahn-Teller coupling by the reduced site-symmetry of the hexagonal lattice.