To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Delusions, hallucinations, aggression, and agitation affect more than half of patients with dementia. Antipsychotic drugs are used to treat these behaviors and symptoms. They are among the most frequently used psychotropic drugs in this disease, but their benefits are uncertain and concerns about safety have emerged. We assessed the current practice in use of antipsychotics medication in outpatients with dementia.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving patients older than 65 years who began outpatient treatment with antipsychotic drugs following a dementia diagnosis.
22 patients were included (16 female, 6 male) with mean age of 78.6 years. All patients consulted for behavioral problems. Most received typical aantipsychotic drugs (72,8%), while 36,4% received atypical antipsychotic drugs. 13 patients (59,1%) were receiving haloperidol. Improvement was observed in 54,5% of patients.
The comparisons of haloperidol with risperidone suggest no difference in efficacy for the treatment of global behaviour disturbance. On the other hand, use of haloperidol is, however, associated with a higher incidence of extrapyramidal and other side effects.
The treatment of elderly patients requires daily careful management and monitoring because of their polypathology, polymedication and of their greater sensitivity to the toxic effects of drugs. Overall, the study findings suggest that there is a need to monitor antipsychotic drug use by elderly patients in light of recent efficacy and safety data on atypical agents.
Women take sick-leave more often than men, in general and especially because of psychiatric disorders.
The aim of the present study was to describe and analyse sick-leave due to psychiatric morbidity and its relation to age and occupation, with a special focus on sex differences.
We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study in external consultation of the psychiatric hospital Razi. We collected the records of patients seen between 01/07/2011 and 30/09/2012 and who received sick leave for psychiatric illness.
92 patients were included (78 female, 14 male) with mean age of 43,6 years. Sick-leave duration was longer for women. The greatest gender differences were found in the youngest and oldest age-groups. Women had higher incidence also in the longest spells (86% vs 14%).
Depressive disorders were found among 73% of cases. Highest incidence of sick-leave was found among those with a combination of psychiatric and physical morbidity.
Psychiatric disorder is an important factor in sick-leave among women, especially regarding length of absence. Further studies on the influence of sex integration on sickness absence need to be done.
Maintaining self-esteem is a fundamental human motivation. Trauma may lower self-esteem, which contributes to the development and maintenance of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
Assessment of self-esteem in Tunisian military patients suffering from PTSD. Study of correlation between the severity of the PTSD symptoms and the rate of self-esteem.
Transversal descriptive study of a sample of 22 patients treated for PTSD in the Tunisian Military Hospital during the period between August and October 2016.
The PTSD Cheklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were administered for patients.
All the patients assessed were male. The mean age of the sample was 29.6 years. Fifty percent of the patients presented with a co-morbid major depression. Based on the score of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, patients had a self-esteem, which was very low in 45.45% of case, low in 45.45% of cases, average in 4.54% of cases and high in 4.54% of cases. The results also showed that lower levels of self-esteem are significantly correlated to the severity of the PTSD symptoms as measured by the PCL-5 score.
This study highlights the magnitude of self-esteem deficiency among patients suffering from PTSD. It remains unclear as to whether the relationship between trauma and depression is consistently mediated by a negative cognitive schema, such as low self-esteem, or whether trauma influences mood independently of low self-esteem. Further studies are required.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.