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The neutral beam (NB) fast ion confinement in the Large Helical Device (LHD) is studied for several full field (
) magnetic configurations by a combination of neutron measurement and simulations. To investigate the NB fast ion confinement, we have performed a series of short-pulse NB injection experiments. The experiment results are analysed by the integrated code TASK3D-a. From this investigation, the effective particle diffusion coefficients of the tangential and perpendicular NBs are approximately
in the standard configuration. It is clarified that the NB fast ion confinement improves when the plasmas are shifted inward. Moreover, it is also found that the simulation, which considers the deuteron dilution effect due to the presence of impurity ions, can describe a neutron emission rate consistent with the measurement.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
To assess the diagnostic role of mean platelet volume in tonsillitis with and without peritonsillar abscess.
Mean platelet volume and other laboratory data were retrospectively investigated.
Mean platelet volume was significantly lower in the tonsillitis group (7.8 per cent ± 0.7 per cent) than in the control group (8.7 per cent ± 0.6 per cent; p < 0.0001), and it was significantly lower in the abscess group (7.5 per cent ± 0.6 per cent) than in the no abscess group (8.0 per cent ± 0.7 per cent; p = 0.0277). White blood cell counts and C-reactive protein levels were not significantly different between patients with an abscess and those without. The mean platelet volume cut-off values for the diagnosis of tonsillitis and peritonsillar abscess were 7.95 fl and 7.75 fl, respectively.
Our results suggest that a decreased mean platelet volume is associated with the development and severity of tonsillitis. This finding provides useful diagnostic information for physicians treating patients with tonsillitis.
Higher-Order Spectra (HOS) are used to characterise the nonlinear aeroelastic behaviour of a plunging and pitching 2-degree-of-freedom aerofoil system by diagnosing structural and/or aerodynamic nonlinearities via the nonlinear spectral content of the computed displacement signals. The nonlinear aeroelastic predictions are obtained from high-fidelity viscous fluid-structure interaction simulations. The power spectral, bi-spectral and tri-spectral densities are used to provide insight into the functional form of both freeplay and inviscid/viscous aerodynamic nonlinearities with the system displaying both low- and high-amplitude Limit Cycle Oscillation (LCO). It is shown that in the absence of aerodynamic nonlinearity (low-amplitude LCO) the system is characterised by cubic phase coupling only. Furthermore, when the amplitude of the oscillations becomes large, aerodynamic nonlinearities become prevalent and are characterised by quadratic phase coupling. Physical insights into the nonlinearities are provided in the form of phase-plane diagrams, pressure coefficient distributions and Mach number flowfield contours.
A fully coherent free electron laser (FEL) seeded with a higher-order harmonic (HH) pulse from high-order harmonic generation (HHG) is successfully operated for a sufficiently prolonged time in pilot user experiments by using a timing drift feedback. For HHG-seeded FELs, the seeding laser pulses have to be synchronized with electron bunches. Despite seeded FELs being non-chaotic light sources in principle, external laser-seeded FELs are often unstable in practice because of a timing jitter and a drift between the seeding laser pulses and the accelerated electron bunches. Accordingly, we constructed a relative arrival-timing monitor based on non-invasive electro-optic sampling (EOS). The EOS monitor made uninterrupted shot-to-shot monitoring possible even during the seeded FEL operation. The EOS system was then used for arrival-timing feedback with an adjustability of 100 fs for continual operation of the HHG-seeded FEL. Using the EOS-based beam drift controlling system, the HHG-seeded FEL was operated over half a day with an effective hit rate of 20%–30%. The output pulse energy was
at the 61.2 nm wavelength. Towards seeded FELs in the water window region, we investigated our upgrade plan to seed high-power FELs with HH photon energy of 30–100 eV and lase at shorter wavelengths of up to 2 nm through high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) at the energy-upgraded SPring-8 Compact SASE Source (SCSS) accelerator. We studied a benefit as well as the feasibility of the next HHG-seeded FEL machine with single-stage HGHG with tunability of a lasing wavelength.
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a severe invasive infection characterized by the sudden onset of shock, multi-organ failure, and high mortality. In Japan, appropriate notification measures based on the Infectious Disease Control law are mandatory for cases of STSS caused by β-haemolytic streptococcus. STSS is mainly caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). Although an average of 60–70 cases of GAS-induced STSS are reported annually, 143 cases were recorded in 2011. To determine the reason behind this marked increase, we characterized the emm genotype of 249 GAS isolates from STSS patients in Japan from 2010 to 2012 and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The predominant genotype was found to be emm1, followed by emm89, emm12, emm28, emm3, and emm90. These six genotypes constituted more than 90% of the STSS isolates. The number of emm1, emm89, emm12, and emm28 isolates increased concomitantly with the increase in the total number of STSS cases. In particular, the number of mefA-positive emm1 isolates has escalated since 2011. Thus, the increase in the incidence of STSS can be attributed to an increase in the number of cases associated with specific genotypes.
We investigated electronic structure of one-dimensional biradical molecular chain which is constructed by exploiting the covalency between organic molecules of a diphenyl derivative of s-indacenodiphenalene (Ph2-IDPL). To control the crystallinity, we used gas deposition method. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) revealed developed band structure with wide dispersion of the one-dimensional biradical molecular chain.
Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) on board International Space Station is capable of
observing gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and sending notices of GRBs or other transient events,
using real time connection to the ground. MAXI observed 32 GRBs or short X-ray transients
as of the end of September 2012. Among them, eleven events were simultaneously detected by
other satellites. The observed rate of the MAXI GRBs is about one event per month. This
rate is comparable to a past observation with larger effective area and larger field of
view. The fact indicates that MAXI has better sensitivity to observe GRBs because of low
background. The distribution of the spectral hardness of MAXI GRBs is similar to the
results of a past instrument, which is sensitive to similar energy range.
An increasing number of transnasal endoscopic surgical procedures are being performed, and these procedures are now also utilised in the management of malignant sinonasal tumours. This study aimed to evaluate the outcome of endoscopic resection of sinonasal malignancies, with or without chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Between 2000 and 2009, six patients with sinonasal malignancies (diagnosed on pre-operative biopsy) underwent endoscopic resection at our hospital. The histopathological diagnoses varied and included squamous cell carcinoma, olfactory neuroblastoma, chordoma, extramedullary plasmacytoma and haemangiopericytoma.
Surgical resection was combined with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in four cases. The mean follow-up period was 43 months. One patient suffered local recurrence of chordoma, 84 months after the first operation, but this was successfully treated with proton beam radiotherapy.
These results suggest that endoscopic resection may be a valid alternative to conventional resection in selected cases of malignant sinonasal tumour.
We present VLBI maps of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission in 32 sources obtained using the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN) and the East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN). All of the observed sources provide new VLBI maps, and the spatial morphologies have been classified into five categories similar to the results obtained from European VLBI Network observations (Bartkiewicz et al. 2009). The 32 methanol sources are being monitored to measure the relative proper motions of the methanol maser spots.
An approach to control the tensile stress and Q factor of thin Si film beams in MEMS resonators was investigated. Metal-induced lateral crystallization (MILC) using Ni nanoparticles that were synthesized within a cage-shaped protein, apoferritin, was applied to a thin morphous Si film for making a MEMS resonator with thin film beams. The MILC produced a thin polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) film with large crystallized domain (50-60 μm) with nearly the same crystalline orientation, whereas the poly-Si film obtained by conventional annealing (without MILC) consisted of small grains (less than 1 μm) with random orientation. The MEMS resonator with a beam made of poly-Si film by MILC was fabricated. The large domain size and the improved crystallinity increased the tensile stress, and resulted in 20% increase in Q factor in the resonant characteristics.
This study focuses on the impact of chemical solutions (hydrogen fluoride and tetramethylammonium hydroxide) on the change in properties of advanced porous low-k films. It was shown that there is no preferential removal of methyl groups during the dissolution process. With regard to wetting agents, the presence of isopropyl alcohol or surfactant (polyoxyethylene ether and alkoxylated diol type) in HF solution slowed down low-k film etching. Complete removal of surfactant residual usually requires an additional rinsing step using a low-molecular weight alcohol such as isopropyl alcohol.
This paper introduces a highly reliable Cu interconnect technology at the 32 nm node with CuMn alloy seed. A CuMn alloy liner seed process combined with a non-gouging liner has been integrated into the minimum-pitch wiring level. Stress migration fails with CuMn seed at plate-below-via structures were shut down by a non-gouging liner process. Integration with gouging liner and non-gouging liner is compared, and results of interaction with CuMn seed are discussed in this paper.
Chemical Mechanical Polish (CMP) is one of the key technologies for the development of modern high performance integrated circuits. The requirements for the CMP uniformity get extremely demanding in order to meet the litho requirements for 32nm technology node and beyond. In this paper, two kinds of orders related to the stressor films that affect the CMP uniformity are revealed. The first is the stressor films deposition order according to the CMP polish rate of each stressor film. The second is the stress gradients order that formed inside the films sitting on top of the stressors. Through the optimization of the order, we show successfully removal of couple hundreds angstroms stressor step heights within 300mm wafer range. The method developed here can also find applications in microelectromechanical systems and 3D integration circuits.
A total of 6346 swine sera collected at an abattoir in the city of Obihiro, Hokkaido during the years 1978–87 were tested for the presence of antibodies to swine and human influenza viruses. A high incidence of antibody to A/New Jersey/8/76 (swine type H1N1) virus was observed throughout the 10 years except for the occasional month and a single long period of 15 months. Antibodies to human H3N2 virus in swine appeared to be related to the epidemics of human influenza which occurred in the study area during the years 1980–3, but unrelated to the epidemics during the years 1984–7. A large number of swine were found to be antibody positive to a human H1N1 virus during the period April to June 1964, and a smaller number, during the period November 1986 to June 1987. Both were in relation to human influenza epidemics. However, there were long periods where human H1N1 antibodies in swine could not be found.
The first occurrence of swine influenza in Japan was recognized in 1977, when it was presumed that the disease was introduced via imported swine (Shibata elal. 1978). Further outbreaks of swine influenza and a high prevalence of antibody to the virus in Japanese swine populations have been reported by several workers (Yamane, Sukeno & Ishida, 1978; Sugimura elal. 1981; Ogawa elal. 1983). An outbreak of influenza virus infection due to an H3N2 strain was previously seen in a herd of swine in Osaka, Japan (Sugimura etal. 1975). Later the co-existence of swine (H1N1) and human (H3N2) influenza viruses was confirmed by serological and virological studies on Japanese swine populations (Onta et al. 1978; Sugimura et al. 1980; Arikawa et al. 1982). In a previous report (Miwa et al. 1986), we suggested that the swine became infected with a human H1N1 virus as piglets during an epidemic of influenza which occurred in the human population at the same time. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the changes in the prevalence of antibodies against swine and human influenza viruses in Japanese swine during the past 10 years.
A total of 1799 swine sera collected in Toyama prefecture in the central part of Japan during the years 1978–82 were tested for antibody against swine influenza virus (SIV), A/New Jersey/8/76 (H1N1). A high prevalence of antibody was observed in the years after the severe epizootic of SI, 34·5% in 1979 and 51·7% in 1982. In other years, the percentages of positive sera were low and ranged from 1·7 to 12·4%. Regional variations were seen in relation to a small scale epizootic. No antibody to SIV was detected in any of the sera collected during the warm season. In the following dry and cold winter, however, a severe epizootic occurred among the swine populations.
Self-aligned Cobalt silicide as ohmic contact layer on sub 100 nm hole patterned Si vertical diode formed by silicon epitaxial growth (SEG) is investigated and silicon epitaxial growth of higher than 4000 Å thickness and good crystalinity for PN diode has been successfully developed. Also, electrical isolation of 100 nm pitch size between diode and diode, and removal of unreacted Co/Ti/TiN layer have been realized by dip-out process without CMP simultaneously. Through the mechanism of void formation due to the variation of Si consumption rate during silicidation at limited hole pattern dimension, critical Co and Capping Ti thickness are investigated as various hole dimensions (80∼120 nm), and then with p+ type dopant species (49BF2, 11B). The ratio of Co thickness to hole dimension demonstrates void free cobalt silcidation on various pattern sizes of silicon epitaxial growth. Silicon epitaxial growing PN diodes including void free CoSi2 show excellent electrical performance, especially lower than 10 pA reverse off leakage current.
We present the results of a systematic benchmarking study, using 45nm-groundrule structures, of a commercially-available ionized PVD Cu technology which employs an in-situ Ar+ radio-frequency (Rf) plasma capability for enhanced coverage, and compare its performance and extendibility against the same seedlayer process operated in conventional low-pressure mode. Studies of single-damascene lines and dual-damascene via structures indicate that the PVD Cu seedlayer with Rf-Plasma enhancement enables a reduction of the PVD Cu seed thickness on the order of 35%, based on studies of Cu voiding, via-yield degradation, and transmission-electron microscopy (TEM). These results illustrate the critical importance of the Rf-plasma resputter capability in extending the PVD Cu process to advanced groundrules at 45nm and beyond.