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Pneumatic launch systems for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), including mechanical and pneumatic systems, are complex and non-linear. They are subjected to system parameters during launch, which leads to difficulty in engineering research analysis. For example, the mismatch between the UAV parameters and the parameter design indices of the launch system as well as the unclear design indices of the launching speed and overload of UAVs have a great impact on launch safety. Considering this situation, some studies are presented in this paper. Taking the pneumatic launch system as a research object, a pneumatic launcher dynamic simulation model is built based on co-simulation considering the coupling characteristics of the mechanical structure and transmission system. Its accuracy was verified by laboratory test results. Based on this model, the paper shows the effects of the key parameters, including the mass of the UAV, cylinder volume, pressure and moment of inertia of the pulley block, on the performance of the dynamic characteristics of the launch process. Then, a method for matching the parameter characteristics between the UAV and launch system based on batch simulation is proposed. The set of matching parameter values of the UAV and launch system that satisfy the launch take-off safety criteria are calculated. Finally, the influence of the system parameters of the launch process on the launch performance was analysed in detail, and the design optimised. Meaningful conclusions were obtained. The analysis method and its results can provide a reference for engineering and theoretical research and development of pneumatic launch systems.
The capability of aircraft tyres to sustain landing impact loads is essential for flight landing safety. Hence, the development of a reliable experimental database is necessary to validate numerical models. The experimental data on aircraft tyre landing impact in the public literature are somewhat sparse. This paper describes a detailed design rig for aircraft tyre impact testing. A finite element model is then created and simulated using a finite element tool (ABAQUS). Inflation and static load simulations are analysed based on the FE tyre model to confirm its reliability. Comparison of experimental measurements with the results reveals that the model can predict the significant features of aircraft tyre impact in a landing scenario. Very little experimental data are publicly available to verify aircraft tyre models. Therefore, the experimental data in this paper fill this gap in the literature.
The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, is a major problem for the production of Sacha Inchi plants. We examined the effects of strip intercropping of Sacha Inchi/Chinese leek of 3–4 years on the seasonal dynamics of plant and soil traits in tropical China. Results indicated that in the intercropping system, a partially temporal divergence of belowground resource acquisition via niche separation occurred throughout the growing seasons, besides a complete spatially-separated plant height between the two crops. Compared with Sacha Inchi monoculture, the increased seed yield per unit area in the intercropping system was mainly attributed to the higher plant survival rate, rather than the enhanced plant traits of healthy plants. Intercropping greatly suppressed M. javanica populations only in the wet season, compared with monoculture; which may be associated with the combined effects of the direct allelopathy and indigenous microbe induced-suppressiveness. Intercropping did not affect microbial richness and α-diversity in the rhizosphere, except for the decreased fungal richness. Both bacterial and fungal composition and structure were diverged between monoculture v. intercropping system. The relative abundances of the dominant bacterial genera (Bacillus, Gaiellales, Lactococcus, Massilia and Lysobacter, etc.) differed significantly between the two cropping systems. For fungi, intercropping decreased the relative abundances of Fusarium and Gibberella, but increased those of Nectriaceae_unclassified, Chaetomiaceae, Humicola and Mortierella. Overall, Sacha Inchi/Chinese leek intercropping suppressed M. javanica populations and shifted microbial compositions (especially decreased pathogen-containing Fusarium). The increased yield and economic returns in this intercropping system provide valid information for the effective agricultural management.
Carrier-based unmanned aerial aircraft (UAV) structure is subjected to severe tensile load during takeoff, especially the drawbar, which affects its fatigue performance and structural safety. However, the complex structural features pose great challenges for the engineering design. Considering this situation, a structural design, fatigue analysis, and parameters optimisation joint working platform are urgently needed to solve this problem. In this study, numerical analysis of strain fatigue is carried out based on the laboratory fatigue failure of the carrier-based aircraft drawbar. Taking the sensitivity of drawbar parameters to stress and life into account and optimum design of drawbar with fatigue life as a target using the parametric method, this study also includes cutting-edge parameters of milling cutters, structural details of the drawbar and so on. Then an experimental design is applied using the Latin hypercube sampling method, and a surrogate model based on RBF neural network is established. Lastly, a multi-island genetic algorithm is introduced for optimisation. The results show that the error between the obtained optimal solution and simulation is 0.26%, while the optimised stress level is reduced by 15.7%, and the life of the drawbar is increased by 122%.
Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common nasal disorder in children that is prone to recurrence. This study investigated the prevention of chronic rhinosinusitis recurrence with bacteria lysate in children.
Bacteria lysate was administered 10 days per month for 3 months to children with chronic rhinosinusitis, who had just entered a remission phase. Visual analogue score, nasal symptoms scores, rhinitis attack frequency and antibiotic use were assessed at three months and one year.
At one year of follow up, the visual analogue score, nasal discharge and obstruction scores, number of days with rhinitis attacks per month and number of days with antibiotic use per month were significantly decreased in the prevention group versus the control group (p < 0.05).
Bacterial lysate used in the remission period of rhinosinusitis in children was shown to provide long-term prophylaxis. Bacterial lysate can effectively reduce the frequency of rhinosinusitis attacks and ameliorate attack symptoms.
The present study investigated alteration of brain resting-state activity induced by antidepressant treatment and attempted to investigate whether treatment efficacy can be predicted at an early stage of pharmacological treatment.
Forty-eight first-episode medication-free patients diagnosed with major depression received treatment with escitalopram. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was administered prior to treatment, 5 h after the first dose, during the course of pharmacological treatment (week 4) and at endpoint (week 8). Resting-state activity was evaluated in the course of the 8-week treatment and in relation to clinical improvement.
Escitalopram dynamically modified resting-state activity in depression during the treatment. After 5 h the antidepressant induced a significant decrease in the signal in the occipital cortex and an increase in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices and middle cingulate cortex. Furthermore, while remitters demonstrated more obvious changes following treatment, these were more modest in non-responders suggesting possible tonic and dynamic differences in the serotonergic system. Changes after 5 h in the caudate, occipital and temporal cortices were the best predictor of clinical remission at endpoint.
This study revealed the possibility of using the measurement of resting-state neural changes a few hours after acute administration of antidepressant to identify individuals likely to remit after a few weeks of treatment.
Schizophrenia patients have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) than normals. We examined the relationship between IGT and clinical phenotypes or cognitive deficits in first-episode, drug-naïve (FEDN) Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
A total of 175 in-patients were compared with 31 healthy controls on anthropometric measures and fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin and lipids. They were also compared using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Neurocognitive functioning was assessed using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Patient psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).
Of the patients, 24.5% had IGT compared with none of the controls, and they also had significantly higher levels of fasting blood glucose and 2-h glucose after an oral glucose load, and were more insulin resistant. Compared with those patients with normal glucose tolerance, the IGT patients were older, had a later age of onset, higher waist or hip circumference and body mass index, higher levels of low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides and higher insulin resistance. Furthermore, IGT patients had higher PANSS total and negative symptom subscale scores, but no greater cognitive impairment except on the emotional intelligence index of the MCCB.
IGT occurs with greater frequency in FEDN schizophrenia, and shows association with demographic and anthropometric parameters, as well as with clinical symptoms but minimally with cognitive impairment during the early course of the disorder.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become a global public health problem. Many studies have been conducted to identify risk factors for HCV infection. However, some of these studies reported inconsistent results. Using data collected from 11 methadone clinics, we fit both a non-spatial logistical regression and a geographically weighted logistic regression to analyse the association between HCV infection and some factors at the individual level. This study enrolled 5401 patients with 30·0% HCV infection prevalence. The non-spatial logistical regression found that injection history, drug rehabilitation history and senior high-school education or above were related to HCV infection; and being married was negatively associated with HCV infection. Using the spatial model, we found that Yi ethnicity was negatively related to HCV infection in 62·0% of townships, and being married was negatively associated with HCV infection in 81·0% of townships. Senior high-school education or above was positively associated with HCV infection in 55·2% of townships of the Yi Autonomous Prefecture. The spatial model offers better understanding of the geographical variations of the risk factors associated with HCV infection. The geographical variations may be useful for customizing intervention strategies for local regions for more efficient allocation of limited resources to control transmission of HCV.
This paper extends the recently developed method of reverberation-ray matrix for planar structures to three-dimensional framed structures. The propagation of steady state axial, flexural and torsional waves, as well as the mode conversions through scattering of all three waves at connecting joints are evaluated in the frequency domain. The transient waves in all members are then determined by the Fourier synthesis. The transient responses of a two-storey framed building subject to a step time loading are calculated in detail. Numerical results are obtained for early time as well as moderately long time records. The results are shown to be accurate in arrival times of all three types of waves and in asymptotic values at times.
There is evidence that epigenetic changes occur early in breast carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that early-life exposures associated with breast cancer would be associated with epigenetic alterations in breast tumors. In particular, we examined DNA methylation patterns in breast tumors in association with several early-life exposures in a population-based case–control study. Promoter methylation of E-cadherin, p16 and RAR-β2 genes was assessed in archived tumor blocks from 803 cases with real-time methylation-specific PCR. Unconditional logistic regression was used for case–case comparisons of those with and without promoter methylation. We found no differences in the prevalence of DNA methylation of the individual genes by age at menarche, age at first live birth and weight at age 20. In case–case comparisons of premenopausal breast cancer, lower birth weight was associated with increased likelihood of E-cadherin promoter methylation (OR = 2.79, 95% CI, 1.15–6.82, for ⩽2.5 v. 2.6–2.9 kg); higher adult height with RAR-β2 methylation (OR = 3.34, 95% CI, 1.19–9.39, for ⩾1.65 v. <1.60 m); and not having been breastfed with p16 methylation (OR = 2.75, 95% CI, 1.14–6.62). Among postmenopausal breast cancers, birth order was associated with increased likelihood of p16 promoter methylation. Being other than first in the birth order was inversely associated with likelihood of ⩾1 of the three genes being methylated for premenopausal breast cancers, but positively associated with methylation in postmenopausal women. These results suggest that there may be alterations in methylation associated with early-life exposures that persist into adulthood and affect breast cancer risk.
A locus, Dlb-1, controlling the binding of the lectin from Dolichos biflorus to the intestinal epithelium and vascular endothelium of mice has been located on chromosome 11, 3.1 ± 1.4 centimorgans proximal to Rex, using recombinant inbred strains and conventional backcrosses with three-point linkage tests.
The two alleles so far discovered at this locus behave unusually. The Dlb-1a allele causes binding to the vascular endothelium but not to the intestinal epithelium while Dlb-1b induces the exact reciprocal binding pattern, and the heterozygote shows both patterns.
The genetic structure of populations of the fish cestode, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi collected from Bailianhe Reservoir (BLH), Changshou (CSH) and Liangzi (LZH) Lakes was investigated by using 8 microsatellite loci. A total of 108 adult worms were genotyped at each of the 8 loci. For the 3 populations, the mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 2·38 to 5·5, and the mean expected heterozygosity ranged from 0·432 to 0·559. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was from 0·384 to 0·492. The significant Fis values indicated non-random mating within LZH and BLH populations. On the other hand, when samples were further classified into subpopulations at the level of host fish species, no or little heterozygote deficiency was detected at most loci, showing that cross-fertilization, predominantly, but not exclusively, must have occurred within the subpopulations. Microsatellite markers also revealed an unexpected high level of genetic differentiation, as measured by Rst and Nm values or by δu2 genetic distance among subpopulations from different hosts. Factors influencing the population genetic structure and the parasite host specificity are discussed.
Luminescent quantum dots (QDs) are emerging as a new class of biological labels with unique properties and applications that are not available from traditional organic dyes and fluorescent proteins. Here we report new developments in using semiconductor quantum dots for quantitative imaging and spectroscopy of single cancer cells. We show that both live and fixed cells can be labeled with multicolor QDs, and that single cells can be analyzed by fluorescence imaging and wavelength-resolved spectroscopy. These results raise new possibilities in cancer imaging, molecular profiling, and disease staging.
This article uses data from the Citizen Participation Study – a large-scale survey of the voluntary activity of the American public designed to oversample African-Americans and Latinos as well as political activists – to inquire about the extent and sources of differences in levels of political activity among African-Americans, Latinos and Anglo-Whites. Considering a variety of political acts, we find that, in the aggregate, African-Americans are slightly, and Latinos are substantially, less active than Anglo-Whites. However, the resources that facilitate participation – some of which, for example, education, are related to social class and others of which, for example, religious preference and activity are associated with race or ethnicity – are distributed very unevenly across the three groups, with Latinos at a particular disadvantage. After accounting for differences in politically relevant resources, there is no significant difference among the three groups in political participation.
We use responses to a large-scale national survey designed to oversample political activists to investigate the extent to which participant publics are representative of the public as a whole. Building upon the finding that while voters differ from nonvoters in their demographic attributes, their attitudes as measured by responses to survey questions are not distinctive, we consider a variety of political acts beyond voting that citizens can use to multiply their political input and to communicate more precise messages to policymakers. In addition, we consider not only respondents' demographic characteristics and policy attitudes but also their circumstances of economic deprivation and dependence upon government programs. Although activists are representative of the public at large in terms of their attitudes, they differ substantially in their demographic attributes, economic needs, and the government benefits they receive. Furthermore, in terms of the issues that animate participation, groups differentiated along these lines bring very different policy concerns to their activity.