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Mealtimes in long-term care (LTC) can reinforce relationships between staff and residents through relationship-centred care (RCC) practices; however, meals are often task-focused (TF). This cross-sectional study explores multi-level contextual factors that contribute to RCC and TF mealtime practices. Secondary data from residents in 32 Canadian LTC homes were analyzed (n = 634; mean age 86.7 ± 7.8; 31.1% male). Data included resident health record review, standardized mealtime observation tools, and valid questionnaires. A higher average number of RCC (9.6 ± 1.4) than TF (5.6 ± 2.1) practices per meal were observed. Multi-level regression revealed that a significant proportion of variation in the RCC and TF scores was explained at the resident- (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]RCC = 0.736; ICCTF = 0.482), dining room- (ICCRCC = 0.210; ICCTF = 0.162), and home- (ICCRCC = 0.054; ICCTF = 0.356) levels. For-profit status and home size modified the associations between functional dependency and practices. Addressing multi-level factors can reinforce RCC practices and reduce TF practices.
The rise of thermals in the atmosphere has attracted a lot of attention since the early work of Morton et al. (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol. 234, 1956, pp. 1–23), who proposed that entrainment into a thermal was proportional to the surface area of the thermal and to the mean vertical velocity of the thermal. This paper presents new analytical solutions for the heights of rise of buoyant thermals in both stably and unstably stratified environments, for both negatively and positively buoyant sources, and where the sources have different size and strength (momentum) characteristics. The limiting cases of these analytical solutions are consistent with previous work. These analytical solutions do not appear elsewhere, and provide a compact set of equations that are easy to apply to a wide range of circumstances. The solutions are dependent upon the entrainment hypothesis, which is of course only an approximation, but the simplicity of the analytical solutions allows easy calculation and additional insights. These include the fact that while heights of rise are strongly dependent on both source strength and size for flows in stable environments, the dilution at the top of rise is independent of the source momentum. Further, in a stable environment, there is a conserved quantity that has dimensions proportional to vertical momentum. For negatively buoyant flows in an unstably stratified environment, thermals having low initial momentum will reach a maximum height, while thermals with high initial momentum will entrain sufficient buoyant environmental fluid that they will eventually become positively buoyant and continue to rise indefinitely.
Background: RSV is underrecognized in hospitalized adults. A better understanding of RSV in this population could help prioritize targeted viral-testing resources. Hospitalization and in-hospital outcomes are widely accepted as markers of clinical severity with respect to acute respiratory illness (ARI). We compared characteristics and clinical outcomes between adults hospitalized with ARI from October 2016 through May 2019. Methods: All hospitalized adults (≥ 18 years) who met a standardized case definition of ARI were prospectively enrolled across 3 respiratory seasons from 9 hospitals participating in the US Hospitalized Adult Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (HAIVEN). Demographic data were collected during enrollment interviews, and electronic medical records (EMRs) were reviewed to extract comorbidity data. Throat and nasal swabs collected at enrollment were tested for ARI pathogens using real-time PCR assays at respective HAIVEN research laboratory sites. Characteristics and clinical outcomes of participants were compared using χ2 or nonparametric tests where appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test associations between infection status, characteristics, and clinical outcomes, adjusting for age, sex, race, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), body mass index (BMI), site, season, and days to admission. Results: In total, 10,311 adults were included, 22.3% (n = 2,300) were aged 18–49 years, 33.2% (n = 3,423) were aged 50–64 years, and 44.5% (n = 4,588) were aged ≥65 years. Moreover, 6% of adults tested positive for RSV (n = 622), 18.8% positive for influenza (n = 1,940), and 75.1% negative for both (n = 7,749). Obesity and age ≥65 years were significantly associated with RSV detection when compared with participants negative for both RSV and influenza. Patients aged 18–49 years and ≥65 years with RSV had significantly higher median CCI scores compared to patients with influenza (Fig. 1.). The proportion of adults with CHF or COPD was significantly (p-value Conclusions: Severe RSV illness may differ from severe influenza illness, and those infected with RSV may have different characteristics than those infected with influenza. Hospitalized adults with RSV infection were more likely to have underlying cardiopulmonary comorbidities and higher CCI scores as well as experience an extended length of hospital stay and need for mechanical ventilation. These data highlight the importance of retaining testing for RSV in older adults hospitalized with ARI.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
To understand those factors which facilitate or hinder resolution of Mental Health Crises in order to inform future development of Crisis Resolution and Home Treatment (CRHT) Teams.
Method & Design
Qualitative Interview study conducted by service users trained in research techniques. Home based interviews were conducted with 36 randomly selected patients who had used the services of one of nine CRHT teams across the East Midlands, United Kingdom, which serves a catchment population of 1.2 million people during a two week census period in October 2007.
Participants reported different levels of satisfaction with the treatment and professional responses they received. We identified three themes leading to successful resolution of mental health crises: being enabled to feel safe, to feel accepted and to feel understood. Participants did not identify specific treatment interventions such as medication or formal psychotherapy as important contributors to recovery. Unhelpful experiences included professional responses which resulted in participants feeling misunderstood or ignored, unsafe, vulnerable or anxious, or that they were being judged.
The quality of relationship between the patient and members of the CRHT team is critical to any therapeutic effect. Therapeutic effect is optimum when it is based upon an adult to adult relationship which can provide a holding function allowing the service user to feel safe, accepted and understood while the crisis resolves. These findings have important implications for commissioning and managing such teams, and theoretical implications for medical practice morewidely.
The use of coercive measures within forensic psychiatry has generated much debate across public, professional and academic domains. the use of restraint, seclusion and rapid tranquillisation challenge the key principles of healthcare as well as individual human rights.
To conduct a systematic review of the literature between the years 1980–2010, examining empirical research studies into the use of coercive measures within forensic psychiatry
To examine current literature; frequencies and variations of coercive measures used within forensic psychiatry
A systematic literature search was conducted using the electronic databases ASSIA, BHI, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PAIS, PsycINFO and Sociological Abstracts.
Twenty-five empirical papers were elicited from the literature search. Younger patients or those newly admitted were restrained and/or secluded most often. Findings relating to gender and diagnoses were ambiguous. Interestingly, no significant differences were found between patient ethnicity and use of restraint and/or seclusion. Limited studies related to staff and patient experiences. Both staff and patients were documented as feeling anxious and angry surrounding coercive experiences. Staff perceptions, roles and responsibilities were suggested to influence decision-making and practice in the use of coercive measures.
Whilst the use of coercive measures remains a controversial method of practice, variations have been found in the use of coercive measures. Differences in ward atmosphere, staffing and patients have all been suggested as contributing factors. More research is required however, into how these varying factors might interact and contribute towards reducing coercive practice.
A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.
Introduction: Although use of point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) protocols for patients with undifferentiated hypotension in the Emergency Department (ED) is widespread, our previously reported SHoC-ED study showed no clear survival or length of stay benefit for patients assessed with PoCUS. In this analysis, we examine if the use of PoCUS changed fluid administration and rates of other emergency interventions between patients with different shock types. The primary comparison was between cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic shock types. Methods: A post-hoc analysis was completed on the database from an RCT of 273 patients who presented to the ED with undifferentiated hypotension (SBP <100 or shock index > 1) and who had been randomized to receive standard care with or without PoCUS in 6 centres in Canada and South Africa. PoCUS-trained physicians performed scans after initial assessment. Shock categories and diagnoses recorded at 60 minutes after ED presentation, were used to allocate patients into subcategories of shock for analysis of treatment. We analyzed actual care delivered including initial IV fluid bolus volumes (mL), rates of inotrope use and major procedures. Standard statistical tests were employed. Sample size was powered at 0.80 (α:0.05) for a moderate difference. Results: Although there were expected differences in the mean fluid bolus volume between patients with non-cardiogenic and cardiogenic shock, there was no difference in fluid bolus volume between the control and PoCUS groups (non-cardiogenic control 1878 mL (95% CI 1550 – 2206 mL) vs. non-cardiogenic PoCUS 1687 mL (1458 – 1916 mL); and cardiogenic control 768 mL (194 – 1341 mL) vs. cardiogenic PoCUS 981 mL (341 – 1620 mL). Likewise there were no differences in rates of inotrope administration, or major procedures for any of the subcategories of shock between the control group and PoCUS group patients. The most common subcategory of shock was distributive. Conclusion: Despite differences in care delivered by subcategory of shock, we did not find any significant difference in actual care delivered between patients who were examined using PoCUS and those who were not. This may help to explain the previously reported lack of outcome difference between groups.
Introduction: Point of care ultrasound has been reported to improve diagnosis in non-traumatic hypotensive ED patients. We compared diagnostic performance of physicians with and without PoCUS in undifferentiated hypotensive patients as part of an international prospective randomized controlled study. The primary outcome was diagnostic performance of PoCUS for cardiogenic vs. non-cardiogenic shock. Methods: SHoC-ED recruited hypotensive patients (SBP < 100 mmHg or shock index > 1) in 6 centres in Canada and South Africa. We describe previously unreported secondary outcomes relating to diagnostic accuracy. Patients were randomized to standard clinical assessment (No PoCUS) or PoCUS groups. PoCUS-trained physicians performed scans after initial assessment. Demographics, clinical details and findings were collected prospectively. Initial and secondary diagnoses including shock category were recorded at 0 and 60 minutes. Final diagnosis was determined by independent blinded chart review. Standard statistical tests were employed. Sample size was powered at 0.80 (α:0.05) for a moderate difference. Results: 273 patients were enrolled with follow-up for primary outcome completed for 270. Baseline demographics and perceived category of shock were similar between groups. 11% of patients were determined to have cardiogenic shock. PoCUS had a sensitivity of 80.0% (95% CI 54.8 to 93.0%), specificity 95.5% (90.0 to 98.1%), LR+ve 17.9 (7.34 to 43.8), LR-ve 0.21 (0.08 to 0.58), Diagnostic OR 85.6 (18.2 to 403.6) and accuracy 93.7% (88.0 to 97.2%) for cardiogenic shock. Standard assessment without PoCUS had a sensitivity of 91.7% (64.6 to 98.5%), specificity 93.8% (87.8 to 97.0%), LR+ve 14.8 (7.1 to 30.9), LR- of 0.09 (0.01 to 0.58), Diagnostic OR 166.6 (18.7 to 1481) and accuracy of 93.6% (87.8 to 97.2%). There was no significant difference in sensitivity (-11.7% (-37.8 to 18.3%)) or specificity (1.73% (-4.67 to 8.29%)). Diagnostic performance was also similar between other shock subcategories. Conclusion: As reported in other studies, PoCUS based assessment performed well diagnostically in undifferentiated hypotensive patients, especially as a rule-in test. However performance was similar to standard (non-PoCUS) assessment, which was excellent in this study.
Towards a comprehensive revision of Gesneriaceae in Sri Lanka, 12 names are here typified, of which 11 are lectotypifications, including one second-step lectotypification, and the other is a neotypification.
Our recent discovery of hazardous concentrations of arsenic in shallow sedimentary aquifers in Cambodia raises the spectre of future deleterious health impacts on a population that, particularly in non-urban areas, extensively use untreated groundwater as a source of drinking water and, in some instances, as irrigation water. We present here small-scale hazard maps for arsenic in shallow Cambodian groundwaters based on >1000 groundwater samples analysed in the Manchester Analytical Geochemistry Unit and elsewhere. Key indicators for hazardous concentrations of arsenic in Cambodian groundwaters include: (1) well depths greater than 16 m; (2) Holocene host sediments; and (3) proximity to major modern channels of the Mekong (and its distributary the Bassac). However, high-arsenic well waters are also commonly found in wells not exhibiting these key characteristics, notably in some shallower Holocene wells, and in wells drilled into older Quaternary and Neogene sediments.
It is emphasized that the maps and tables presented are most useful for identifying current regional trends in groundwater arsenic hazard and that their use for predicting arsenic concentrations in individual wells, for example for the purposes of well switching, is not recommended, particularly because of the lack of sufficient data (especially at depths >80 m) and because, as in Bangladesh and West Bengal, there is considerable heterogeneity of groundwater arsenic concentrations on a scale of metres to hundreds of metres. We have insufficient data at this time to determine unequivocally whether or not arsenic concentrations are increasing in shallow Cambodian groundwaters as a result of groundwater-abstraction activities.
Two new species of Oreocharis, O. tribracteata and O. rufescens, are described and a key to the species in Vietnam is provided. The new species have distinct features not previously, or rarely, observed in the genus, both showing the partial fusion of the calyx lobes into a tube, and the presence of three bracts in Oreocharis tribracteata.
Introduction: Point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) has become an established tool in the initial management of patients with undifferentiated hypotension in the emergency department (ED). Current established protocols (e.g. RUSH and ACES) were developed by expert user opinion, rather than objective, prospective data. Recently the SHoC Protocol was published, recommending 3 core scans; cardiac, lung, and IVC; plus other scans when indicated clinically. We report the abnormal ultrasound findings from our international multicenter randomized controlled trial, to assess if the recommended 3 core SHoC protocol scans were chosen appropriately for this population. Methods: Recruitment occurred at seven centres in North America (4) and South Africa (3). Screening at triage identified patients (SBP<100 or shock index>1) who were randomized to PoCUS or control (standard care with no PoCUS) groups. All scans were performed by PoCUS-trained physicians within one hour of arrival in the ED. Demographics, clinical details and study findings were collected prospectively. A threshold incidence for positive findings of 10% was established as significant for the purposes of assessing the appropriateness of the core recommendations. Results: 138 patients had a PoCUS screen completed. All patients had cardiac, lung, IVC, aorta, abdominal, and pelvic scans. Reported abnormal findings included hyperdynamic LV function (59; 43%); small collapsing IVC (46; 33%); pericardial effusion (24; 17%); pleural fluid (19; 14%); hypodynamic LV function (15; 11%); large poorly collapsing IVC (13; 9%); peritoneal fluid (13; 9%); and aortic aneurysm (5; 4%). Conclusion: The 3 core SHoC Protocol recommendations included appropriate scans to detect all pathologies recorded at a rate of greater than 10 percent. The 3 most frequent findings were cardiac and IVC abnormalities, followed by lung. It is noted that peritoneal fluid was seen at a rate of 9%. Aortic aneurysms were rare. This data from the first RCT to compare PoCUS to standard care for undifferentiated hypotensive ED patients, supports the use of the prioritized SHoC protocol, though a larger study is required to confirm these findings.
Introduction: Point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) is an established tool in the initial management of patients with undifferentiated hypotension in the emergency department (ED). While PoCUS protocols have been shown to improve early diagnostic accuracy, there is little published evidence for any mortality benefit. We report the findings from our international multicenter randomized controlled trial, assessing the impact of a PoCUS protocol on survival and key clinical outcomes. Methods: Recruitment occurred at 7 centres in North America (4) and South Africa (3). Scans were performed by PoCUS-trained physicians. Screening at triage identified patients (SBP<100 or shock index>1), randomized to PoCUS or control (standard care and no PoCUS) groups. Demographics, clinical details and study findings were collected prospectively. Initial and secondary diagnoses were recorded at 0 and 60 minutes, with ultrasound performed in the PoCUS group prior to secondary assessment. The primary outcome measure was 30-day/discharge mortality. Secondary outcome measures included diagnostic accuracy, changes in vital signs, acid-base status, and length of stay. Categorical data was analyzed using Fishers test, and continuous data by Student T test and multi-level log-regression testing. (GraphPad/SPSS) Final chart review was blinded to initial impressions and PoCUS findings. Results: 258 patients were enrolled with follow-up fully completed. Baseline comparisons confirmed effective randomization. There was no difference between groups for the primary outcome of mortality; PoCUS 32/129 (24.8%; 95% CI 14.3-35.3%) vs. Control 32/129 (24.8%; 95% CI 14.3-35.3%); RR 1.00 (95% CI 0.869 to 1.15; p=1.00). There were no differences in the secondary outcomes; ICU and total length of stay. Our sample size has a power of 0.80 (α:0.05) for a moderate effect size. Other secondary outcomes are reported separately. Conclusion: This is the first RCT to compare PoCUS to standard care for undifferentiated hypotensive ED patients. We did not find any mortality or length of stay benefits with the use of a PoCUS protocol, though a larger study is required to confirm these findings. While PoCUS may have diagnostic benefits, these may not translate into a survival benefit effect.
Introduction: Point of Care Ultrasound (PoCUS) protocols are commonly used to guide resuscitation for emergency department (ED) patients with undifferentiated non-traumatic hypotension. While PoCUS has been shown to improve early diagnosis, there is a minimal evidence for any outcome benefit. We completed an international multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess the impact of a PoCUS protocol on key resuscitation markers in this group. We report diagnostic impact and mortality elsewhere. Methods: The SHoC-ED1 study compared the addition of PoCUS to standard care within the first hour in the treatment of adult patients presenting with undifferentiated hypotension (SBP<100 mmHg or a Shock Index >1.0) with a control group that did not receive PoCUS. Scans were performed by PoCUS-trained physicians. 4 North American, and 3 South African sites participated in the study. Resuscitation outcomes analyzed included volume of fluid administered in the ED, changes in shock index (SI), modified early warning score (MEWS), venous acid-base balance, and lactate, at one and four hours. Comparisons utilized a T-test as well as stratified binomial log-regression to assess for any significant improvement in resuscitation amount the outcomes. Our sample size was powered at 0.80 (α:0.05) for a moderate effect size. Results: 258 patients were enrolled with follow-up fully completed. Baseline comparisons confirmed effective randomization. There was no significant difference in mean total volume of fluid received between the control (1658 ml; 95%CI 1365-1950) and PoCUS groups (1609 ml; 1385-1832; p=0.79). Significant improvements were seen in SI, MEWS, lactate and bicarbonate with resuscitation in both the PoCUS and control groups, however there was no difference between groups. Conclusion: SHOC-ED1 is the first RCT to compare PoCUS to standard of care in hypotensive ED patients. No significant difference in fluid used, or markers of resuscitation was found when comparing the use of a PoCUS protocol to that of standard of care in the resuscitation of patients with undifferentiated hypotension.
Introduction: Point of care ultrasonography (PoCUS) is an established tool in the initial management of hypotensive patients in the emergency department (ED). It has been shown rule out certain shock etiologies, and improve diagnostic certainty, however evidence on benefit in the management of hypotensive patients is limited. We report the findings from our international multicenter RCT assessing the impact of a PoCUS protocol on diagnostic accuracy, as well as other key outcomes including mortality, which are reported elsewhere. Methods: Recruitment occurred at 4 North American and 3 Southern African sites. Screening at triage identified patients (SBP<100 mmHg or shock index >1) who were randomized to either PoCUS or control groups. Scans were performed by PoCUS-trained physicians. Demographics, clinical details and findings were collected prospectively. Initial and secondary diagnoses were recorded at 0 and 60 minutes, with ultrasound performed in the PoCUS group prior to secondary assessment. Final chart review was blinded to initial impressions and PoCUS findings. Categorical data was analyzed using Fishers two-tailed test. Our sample size was powered at 0.80 (α:0.05) for a moderate effect size. Results: 258 patients were enrolled with follow-up fully completed. Baseline comparisons confirmed effective randomization. The perceived shock category changed more frequently in the PoCUS group 20/127 (15.7%) vs. control 7/125 (5.6%); RR 2.81 (95% CI 1.23 to 6.42; p=0.0134). There was no significant difference in change of diagnostic impression between groups PoCUS 39/123 (31.7%) vs control 34/124 (27.4%); RR 1.16 (95% CI 0.786 to 1.70; p=0.4879). There was no significant difference in the rate of correct category of shock between PoCUS (118/127; 93%) and control (113/122; 93%); RR 1.00 (95% CI 0.936 to 1.08; p=1.00), or for correct diagnosis; PoCUS 90/127 (70%) vs control 86/122 (70%); RR 0.987 (95% CI 0.671 to 1.45; p=1.00). Conclusion: This is the first RCT to compare PoCUS to standard care for undifferentiated hypotensive ED patients. We found that the use of PoCUS did change physicians’ perceived shock category. PoCUS did not improve diagnostic accuracy for category of shock or diagnosis.
Subjective reports of insomnia and hypersomnia are common in bipolar disorder (BD). It is unclear to what extent these relate to underlying circadian rhythm disturbance (CRD). In this study we aimed to objectively assess sleep and circadian rhythm in a cohort of patients with BD compared to matched controls.
Forty-six patients with BD and 42 controls had comprehensive sleep/circadian rhythm assessment with respiratory sleep studies, prolonged accelerometry over 3 weeks, sleep questionnaires and diaries, melatonin levels, alongside mood, psychosocial functioning and quality of life (QoL) questionnaires.
Twenty-three (50%) patients with BD had abnormal sleep, of whom 12 (52%) had CRD and 29% had obstructive sleep apnoea. Patients with abnormal sleep had lower 24-h melatonin secretion compared to controls and patients with normal sleep. Abnormal sleep/CRD in BD was associated with impaired functioning and worse QoL.
BD is associated with high rates of abnormal sleep and CRD. The association between these disorders, mood and functioning, and the direction of causality, warrants further investigation.
The title of this article may surprise those who look upon composites as a recent innovation. The first major step was taken in 1940 when Dr Norman de Bruyne's Aero Research Ltd of Duxford, now part of the Ciba-Geigy Group, built a Spitfire fuselage in Aerolite, a material developed by them comprising flax thread skeined and impregnated with a phenolic resin and formed in a heated press. The project arose as a safeguard against a possible war-time shortage of aluminium alloys. Tests at RAE proved entirely satisfactory whilst the weight was the same as the metal version, see Figs 1-3.
In 1947 Turner Brothers developed a chrysotile asbestos fibre reinforced phenolic resin called Durestos. The wings of the experimental Fairey Delta E10/47 were built from it and were the first primary composite structures to be flown.
Since those days immense strides have been made in the use of advanced composites, most modern civil and military aircraft taking advantage of their unique properties.