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The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest interhemispheric white matter commissure connecting the cerebral hemispheres and plays a crucial role in interhemispheric communication and cognitive processes. The subdivisions of the CC were attempted to define corresponding areas of the cortex from which the fibers originate. Previous neuroanatomic studies of the CC provide impetus for investigating its role in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
In this study diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was employed to microstructural abnormalities of white matter of the CC in OCD patients. Nine patients with OCD and matched control subjects underwent DTI. Fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of the integrity of white matter tracts, was determined in the seven subdivisions of the CC.
Significant reduction in FA was found in the rostrum of the CC of patients with OCD compared with one of controls. FA of the other subdivisions except the rostrum in OCD patients did not differ compared with control subjects. Higher FA in the rostrum correlated with lower Y-BOCS scores (r = -0.852, p = 0.004).
The rostrum contains fibers from inferior premotor as well as medial and caudate/orbital prefrontal regions. These results supported the theory of dysfunction of prefrontal cortex and striatal circuits in OCD and suggested the implication of the orbitofrontal circuit for symptom severity in the OCD patients.
The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favourable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other worlds, we need to understand the nature of global (astrospheric), and local (atmospheric and surface) environments of exoplanets in the habitable zones (HZs) around G-K-M dwarf stars including our young Sun. Global environment is formed by propagated disturbances from the planet-hosting stars in the form of stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, energetic particles and winds collectively known as astrospheric space weather. Its characterization will help in understanding how an exoplanetary ecosystem interacts with its host star, as well as in the specification of the physical, chemical and biochemical conditions that can create favourable and/or detrimental conditions for planetary climate and habitability along with evolution of planetary internal dynamics over geological timescales. A key linkage of (astro)physical, chemical and geological processes can only be understood in the framework of interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary and Earth sciences. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets will significantly expand the current definition of the HZ to the biogenic zone and provide new observational strategies for searching for signatures of life. The major goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the current status and recent progress in this interdisciplinary field in light of presentations and discussions during the NASA Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science funded workshop ‘Exoplanetary Space Weather, Climate and Habitability’ and to provide a new roadmap for the future development of the emerging field of exoplanetary science and astrobiology.
We have detected 3, 141 ultraviolet-excess galaxies in the sky area of some 1,500 square degrees by means of the UGR three-image photographs taken with the 105-cm Kiso Schmidt. For each of these galaxies which we call KUGs the morphological type and the degree of ultraviolet-excess are given in the catalogues. The frequency distribution for these characteristics of KUGs is shown in a form of histogram. The results of a spectroscopic study for the 57 selected KUGs are that 85% of the sample have emission-lines and most of them are situated in the domain of HII regions on the emission-line ratio diagram.
A pair of emission-line galaxies with separation 7.1 arcseconds was found from the survey of the UK Schmidt objective-prizm plates. The spectroscopic observations by the 1.88m reflector of the Okayama Observatory show the same emission-line features with Z=0.0441.
A survey of Kiso UV-excess galaxies (KUGs) has been made using the 105-cm Kiso Schmidt telescope. We selected three galaxies of Ic-type (i.e. irregulars with clumpy HII regions). KUGs 1618+373, 1624+404 and 1626+413, and observed them together with a clumpy irregular galaxy Mrk 297 to clarify their star formation activity (Maehara et al. 1986).
A survey of UV-excess galaxies (KUGs) has been made on UGR three image plates taken with the 105-cm Kiso Schmidt telescope (105/150/330) by Takase and Miyauchi-Isobe (1984, 1985a,b). Up to now, about 1 800 objects down to 17-17.5 mag have been catalogued in the surveyed areas of about 900 square degrees.
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