To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Children of women with pre-eclampsia have increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic disease in adult life. Furthermore, the risk of pregnancy complications is higher in daughters born to women affected by pre-eclampsia than in daughters born after uncomplicated pregnancies. While aberrant inflammation contributes to the pathophysiology of pregnancy complications, including pre-eclampsia, the contribution of maternal inflammation to subsequent risk of CV and metabolic disease as well as pregnancy complications in the offspring remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that 24-week-old female rats (F1) born to dams (F0) exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during pregnancy (to induce inflammation) exhibited mild systolic dysfunction, increased cardiac growth-related gene expression, altered glucose tolerance, and coagulopathy; whereas male F1 offspring exhibited altered glucose tolerance and increased visceral fat accumulation compared with F1 sex-matched offspring born to saline-treated dams. Both male and female F1 offspring born to LPS-treated dams had evidence of anemia. Fetuses (F2) from F1 females born to LPS-treated dams were growth restricted, and this reduction in fetal growth was associated with increased CD68 positivity (indicative of macrophage presence) and decreased expression of glucose transporter-1 in their utero-placental units. These results indicate that abnormal maternal inflammation can contribute to increased risk of CV and metabolic disease in the offspring, and that the effects of inflammation may cross generations. Our findings provide evidence in support of early screening for CV and metabolic disease, as well as pregnancy complications in offspring affected by pre-eclampsia or other pregnancy complications associated with aberrant inflammation.
Field studies were conducted on organic soils in Belle Glade, FL, in 2016 to 2017 to evaluate sugarcane tolerance and fall panicum control with topramezone applied alone or in combination with triazine herbicides (atrazine, metribuzin, ametryn). Treatments included topramezone (25 and 50 g ai ha−1) applied alone or in combination with atrazine (2,240 g ai ha−1), metribuzin (2,240 g ai ha−1), and ametryn (440 g ha−1) on four plant cane varieties to evaluate tolerance, and on second ratoon fields to determine efficacy on fall panicum control. Topramezone applied alone had no effect on sugarcane chlorophyll fluorescence (i.e., the ratio of variable fluorescence to maximum fluorescence), total chlorophyll, and carotenoid 7 to 28 d after treatment (DAT), suggesting sugarcane tolerance. Significant reduction of these parameters occured 7 to 14 DAT when topramezone (50 g ai ha−1) was applied with ametryn or metribuzin; however, reductions were not detected thereafter, indicating recovery. Sugarcane yield was not affected by topramezone applied alone or in combination with the triazine herbicides. Topramezone (50 g ai ha−1) plus metribuzin resulted in acceptable control of fall panicum (84%) with limited to no regrowth of meristematic tissue at sugarcane canopy closure, equivalent to 56 to 70 DAT. These results indicate that when sequential applications of topramezone, applied alone or in combination with these triazine herbicides, are required for efficacious weed control, topramezone applications alone can be made after 7 d, whereas the combinations can be made after 14 or 21 d, depending on sugarcane sensitivity.
A 2018 workshop on the White Mountain Apache Tribe lands in Arizona examined ways to enhance investigations into cultural property crime (CPC) through applications of rapidly evolving methods from archaeological science. CPC (also looting, graverobbing) refers to unauthorized damage, removal, or trafficking in materials possessing blends of communal, aesthetic, and scientific values. The Fort Apache workshop integrated four generally partitioned domains of CPC expertise: (1) theories of perpetrators’ motivations and methods; (2) recommended practice in sustaining public and community opposition to CPC; (3) tactics and strategies for documenting, investigating, and prosecuting CPC; and (4) forensic sedimentology—uses of biophysical sciences to link sediments from implicated persons and objects to crime scenes. Forensic sedimentology served as the touchstone for dialogues among experts in criminology, archaeological sciences, law enforcement, and heritage stewardship. Field visits to CPC crime scenes and workshop deliberations identified pathways toward integrating CPC theory and practice with forensic sedimentology’s potent battery of analytic methods.
Whole-grain cereal breakfast consumption has been associated with beneficial effects on glucose and insulin metabolism as well as satiety. Pearl millet is a popular ancient grain variety that can be grown in hot, dry regions. However, little is known about its health effects. The present study investigated the effect of a pearl millet porridge (PMP) compared with a well-known Scottish oats porridge (SOP) on glycaemic, gastrointestinal, hormonal and appetitive responses. In a randomised, two-way crossover trial, twenty-six healthy participants consumed two isoenergetic/isovolumetric PMP or SOP breakfast meals, served with a drink of water. Blood samples for glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), peptide YY, gastric volumes and appetite ratings were collected 2 h postprandially, followed by an ad libitum meal and food intake records for the remainder of the day. The incremental AUC (iAUC2h) for blood glucose was not significantly different between the porridges (P > 0·05). The iAUC2h for gastric volume was larger for PMP compared with SOP (P = 0·045). The iAUC2h for GIP concentration was significantly lower for PMP compared with SOP (P = 0·001). Other hormones and appetite responses were similar between meals. In conclusion, the present study reports, for the first time, data on glycaemic and physiological responses to a pearl millet breakfast, showing that this ancient grain could represent a sustainable alternative with health-promoting characteristics comparable with oats. GIP is an incretin hormone linked to TAG absorption in adipose tissue; therefore, the lower GIP response for PMP may be an added health benefit.
We present two new quantitative July mean temperature (Tjul) reconstructions from the Arctic tree-line region in the Kola Peninsula in north-western Russia. The reconstructions are based on fossil pollen records and cover the Younger Dryas stadial and the Holocene. The inferred temperatures are less reliable during the Younger Dryas because of the poorer fit between the fossil pollen samples and the modern samples in the calibration set than during the Holocene. The results suggest that the Younger Dryas Tjulin the region was 8.0–10.0°C, being 2.0–3.0°C lower than at present. The Holocene summer temperature maximum dates to 7500–6500 cal yr BP, with Tjulabout 1.5°C higher than at present. These new records contribute to our understanding of summer temperature changes along the northern-European tree-line region. The Holocene trends are consistent in most of the independent records from the Fennoscandian–Kola tree-line region, with the beginning of the Holocene thermal maximum no sooner than at about 8000 cal yr BP. In the few existing temperature-related records farther east in the Russian Arctic tree line, the period of highest summer temperature begins already at about 10,000 cal yr BP. This difference may reflect the strong influence of the Atlantic coastal current on the atmospheric circulation pattern and the thermal behaviour of the tree-line region on the Atlantic seaboard, and the more direct influence of the summer solar insolation on summer temperature in the region east of the Kola Peninsula.
Modelling of tree-ring δ13C and δ18O data from the Columbia Icefield area in the eastern Rocky Mountains of western Canada provides fuller understanding of climatic and hydrologic variability over the past 1000 yr in this region, based on reconstruction of changes in growth season atmospheric relative humidity (RHgrs), winter temperature (Twin) and the precipitation δ18O–Twin relation. The Little Ice Age (~ AD 1530s–1890s) is marked by low RHgrs and Twin and a δ18O–Twin relation offset from that of the present, reflecting enhanced meridional circulation and persistent influence of Arctic air masses. Independent proxy hydrologic evidence suggests that snowmelt sustained relatively abundant streamflow at this time in rivers draining the eastern Rockies. In contrast, the early millennium was marked by higher RHgrs and Twin and a δ18O–Twin relation like that of the 20th century, consistent with pervasive influence of Pacific air masses because of strong zonal circulation. Especially mild conditions prevailed during the “Medieval Climate Anomaly” ~ AD 1100–1250, corresponding with evidence for reduced discharge in rivers draining the eastern Rockies and extensive hydrological drought in neighbouring western USA.
Previous neuroimaging studies indicate abnormalities in cortico-limbic circuitry in mood disorder. Here we employ prospective longitudinal voxel-based morphometry to examine the trajectory of these abnormalities during early stages of illness development.
Unaffected individuals (16–25 years) at high and low familial risk of mood disorder underwent structural brain imaging on two occasions 2 years apart. Further clinical assessment was conducted 2 years after the second scan (time 3). Clinical outcome data at time 3 was used to categorize individuals: (i) healthy controls (‘low risk’, n = 48); (ii) high-risk individuals who remained well (HR well, n = 53); and (iii) high-risk individuals who developed a major depressive disorder (HR MDD, n = 30). Groups were compared using longitudinal voxel-based morphometry. We also examined whether progress to illness was associated with changes in other potential risk markers (personality traits, symptoms scores and baseline measures of childhood trauma), and whether any changes in brain structure could be indexed using these measures.
Significant decreases in right amygdala grey matter were found in HR MDD v. controls (p = 0.001) and v. HR well (p = 0.005). This structural change was not related to measures of childhood trauma, symptom severity or measures of sub-diagnostic anxiety, neuroticism or extraversion, although cross-sectionally these measures significantly differentiated the groups at baseline.
These longitudinal findings implicate structural amygdala changes in the neurobiology of mood disorder. They also provide a potential biomarker for risk stratification capturing additional information beyond clinically ascertained measures.
Neurocognitive performance deficits have been observed in mood disorder patients and their unaffected relatives and may therefore qualify as endophenotypes. However, the precise time course of neurocognitive deficits has not been studied so that it is unknown whether neurocognitive abnormalities reflect the early effects of familial vulnerability to mood disorders or if they emerge at illness onset.
A neuropsychological test battery was administered at baseline and after a 2-year follow-up interval in 111 initially unaffected young adults at high familial risk of mood disorders and 93 healthy controls (HC). During the follow-up period, 20 high-risk subjects developed major depressive disorder (HR-MDD), with the remainder remaining well (HR-well). Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate differences and longitudinal changes in the domains of attentional processing, working memory, verbal learning and memory, and cognitive flexibility.
Reduced long delay verbal memory and extradimensional set-shifting performance across both time points were found in the HR-well group relative to controls. The HR-MDD group displayed decreased extradimensional set-shifting abilities across both time points as compared with the HC group only. There were no significant performance differences between the two high-risk groups.
Reduced verbal memory and cognitive flexibility are familial trait markers for vulnerability to mood disorders in individuals with a close family history of bipolar disorder. Both neurocognitive performance deficits appear to be relatively stable over a 2-year time period and do not appear to be linked to the onset of MDD. These findings support their use as stable quantitative endophenotypes for mood disorders.
New Ediacaran fossil finds at Sekwi Brook occur in lower shoreface to offshore transition beds at the top of the Blueflower Formation, which are the most shallow-water facies and the youngest strata in which Ediacara-type fossils have been described from the Mackenzie Mountains of NW Canada. Newly discovered Ediacaran body fossils include two new tubular genera: Sekwitubulus annulatus new genus new species was a mm-diameter rigid annulated tube that was rooted to the sea bottom by a holdfast; Annulatubus flexuosus n. gen. n. sp. was a cm-diameter, flexible annulated tube. In conjunction with previously described large attachment discs representing the form-genus Aspidella and a single specimen of the dickinsonid Windermeria, these fossils define an assemblage that differs markedly from the rangeomorph-dominated deeper-water and older assemblages lower in the same section at Sekwi Brook. In contrast, trace fossils show little change upwards through the Blueflower Formation, at least in part reflecting their origin by microbial grazers on mats that formed during low-energy periods in both deep- and shallow-water environments. This implies that the stratigraphic succession of Ediacaran fossils in NW Canada and probably globally represents both evolutionary changes with age and the paleoecology of specific depositional settings.
The Rank Forum on Vitamin D was held on 2nd and 3rd July 2009 at the University of Surrey, Guildford, UK. The workshop consisted of a series of scene-setting presentations to address the current issues and challenges concerning vitamin D and health, and included an open discussion focusing on the identification of the concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (a marker of vitamin D status) that may be regarded as optimal, and the implications this process may have in the setting of future dietary reference values for vitamin D in the UK. The Forum was in agreement with the fact that it is desirable for all of the population to have a serum 25(OH)D concentration above 25 nmol/l, but it discussed some uncertainty about the strength of evidence for the need to aim for substantially higher concentrations (25(OH)D concentrations>75 nmol/l). Any discussion of ‘optimal’ concentration of serum 25(OH)D needs to define ‘optimal’ with care since it is important to consider the normal distribution of requirements and the vitamin D needs for a wide range of outcomes. Current UK reference values concentrate on the requirements of particular subgroups of the population; this differs from the approaches used in other European countries where a wider range of age groups tend to be covered. With the re-emergence of rickets and the public health burden of low vitamin D status being already apparent, there is a need for urgent action from policy makers and risk managers. The Forum highlighted concerns regarding the failure of implementation of existing strategies in the UK for achieving current vitamin D recommendations.