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Adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) face a unique set of medical, psychological, and social challenges, and access to specialised adult congenital heart disease care has been associated with improved outcomes. Rural adults with CHD may represent a uniquely disadvantaged group given additional challenges when accessing specialised care. The aim of this study was to investigate the challenges faced by adults with CHD in accessing outpatient cardiac care, with a specific focus on understanding differences between urban- and rural-dwelling patients.
This cross-sectional, survey-based study took place in the adult congenital heart disease clinic at an urban academic medical center. Additional medical information was abstracted in a retrospective manner from the electronic health record. In addition to descriptive statistics, t-tests and Chi-square tests were performed to investigate differences between urban and rural dwelling patients.
A total of 100 patients participated in the study (mean age 40 ± 13 years, 60% female, 18% rural dwelling). Across the total sample, the median driving distance to clinic was 20 miles (interquartile range 12–77); it was 15 miles for urban dwellers and 77 miles for rural dwelling patients (p < 0.001). The most commonly identified barriers to cardiac clinic visits were financial losses related to taking time off from work (39%), distance of clinic from home (33%), and weather (33%). Compared to urban dwelling patients, on average those who were rural dwelling had a lower level of education (p = 0.04), more difficulty paying insurance premiums (p < 0.001) and copays (p = 0.005), and were more likely to identify the distance from clinic (p = 0.05) and having to go into the city (p = 0.02) as barriers to clinic appointments.
The financial impact and distance to clinic were the most commonly identified barriers to outpatient cardiac care in this cohort of adults with CHD. These barriers, along with difficulty paying insurance premiums, are more common in rural dwelling patients. Initiatives such as telemedicine visits or providing financial subsidies for travel and treatment could help to expand specialty adult congenital heart disease care and better serve this growing patient population.
The research focuses on the design space optimisation of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) submerged inlets through the formulation of a hybrid data fusion methodology. Submerged inlets have drawn considerable attention owing to their potential for good on-design performance, for example during cruise flight conditions. However, complexities due to the geometrical topology and interactions among various design variables remain a challenge. This research enhances the current design knowledge of submerged inlets through the utilisation of data mining and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodologies, focusing on design space optimisation. A two-pronged approach is employed where the first step encompasses a low-fidelity model through data mining and surrogate modelling to predict and optimise the design parameters, while the second step uses the Design of Experiments (DOE) approach based on the CFD results for the candidate design geometry to construct a surrogate model with high fidelity for design refinement. The feasibility of the proposed methodology is demonstrated for the optimisation of the total pressure recovery of a NACA submerged inlet for the subsonic flight regime. The proposed methodology is found to provide good agreement between the surrogate and CFD-based model and reduce the optimisation processing time by half in comparison with conventional (global-based) CFD optimisation approaches.
Urban density is erroneously regarded as the main factor in the spread of COVID-19 in cities. A review of extant literature and findings from our case study of Karachi, Pakistan indicate that inequalities in income, healthcare, and living conditions play a key role in the spread of contagions along with government responsiveness to the pandemic. Moving forward, urban policies need to address these inequalities through changes in housing policies and decentralized governance systems. Cities must adapt to sustainable modes of travel, reduce digital inequalities, and encourage people friendly urban planning to become resilient in the face of pandemics.
COVID-19 has changed how urban residents relate to their cities. Urban centers have become epicenters of disease, which has raised questions about the long-term sustainability of high-density settlements and public transport usage. However, the spread of COVID-19 in cities is incorrectly attributed to urban density.
Using the case study of Karachi, Pakistan, we find that inequality of income, healthcare, and living conditions is a major contributing factor to the spread of COVID-19. Data on positive COVID-19 cases, density, and socioeconomic status were obtained at the Union Council level from administrative districts of Karachi, Pakistan between March 2020, and July 2020. Despite low population densities, low-to-middle income neighborhoods in Karachi had a higher proportion of positive cases. Further, the experience of dense cities such as Hanoi in Vietnam and New York in the US differs regarding the spread of COVID-19. Hence, the government's response to the pandemic is also a major factor in containing the outbreak.
Our findings suggest that a crisis in a city is exacerbated by its inability to take advantage of its density, inequality in the distribution of resources, lack of inclusiveness, and centralized governance mechanisms that make it difficult to respond quickly to situations. Thus, urban planning scholarship and practice should take an interdisciplinary approach to make cities equitable, inclusive, and adaptive.
Social media summary
Cities in the developing world have an opportunity for more resilient renewal in the post-COVID world.
Smokeless tobacco use among Indian women is increasing despite prevention efforts. Evolutionary theories suggest that reproductive-aged women should be more concerned about immediate threats to reproduction than threats to survival occurring late in life. This study therefore compared an anti-tobacco intervention that emphasized near-term reproductive harms to one involving general harms occurring later in life. Scheduled Tribal women (N = 92) from Karnataka, India participated in this study. At baseline, women reported tobacco use and knowledge of harms, provided a saliva sample to assess use, and randomly viewed either a general harms presentation (GHP) or reproductive harms presentation (RHP). At followup, women reported their use, knowledge of harms and intentions to quit, and provided another saliva sample. At baseline, participants were aware of general harms but not reproductive harms. Both interventions increased knowledge of harms. Women in the RHP condition did not list more harms than women in the GHP condition, however, and the RHP was not more effective in reducing tobacco use than the GHP. In the RHP condition fetal health was particularly salient. In the GHP condition, oral health was highly salient, aligning with the local disease ecology and research on tobacco use and attractiveness.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant strain on front-line healthcare workers.
In this multicentre study, we compared the psychological outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic in various countries in the Asia-Pacific region and identified factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes.
From 29 April to 4 June 2020, the study recruited healthcare workers from major healthcare institutions in five countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A self-administrated survey that collected information on prior medical conditions, presence of symptoms, and scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised were used. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relating to COVID-19 was compared, and multivariable logistic regression identified independent factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes within each country.
A total of 1146 participants from India, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam were studied. Despite having the lowest volume of cases, Vietnam displayed the highest prevalence of PTSD. In contrast, Singapore reported the highest case volume, but had a lower prevalence of depression and anxiety. In the multivariable analysis, we found that non-medically trained personnel, the presence of physical symptoms and presence of prior medical conditions were independent predictors across the participating countries.
This study highlights that the varied prevalence of psychological adversity among healthcare workers is independent of the burden of COVID-19 cases within each country. Early psychological interventions may be beneficial for the vulnerable groups of healthcare workers with presence of physical symptoms, prior medical conditions and those who are not medically trained.
Obese subjects have shown a preference for dietary lipids. A recent collection of evidence has proposed that a variant in the CD36 gene plays a significant role in this pathway. We assessed the association between the orosensory detection of a long-chain fatty acid, i.e. oleic acid (OA), and genetic polymorphism of the lipid taste sensor CD36 in obese and normal-weight subjects. Adult participants were recruited in the fasting condition. They were invited to fat taste perception sessions, using emulsions containing OA and according to the three-alternative forced-choice (3-AFC) method. Genomic DNA was used to determine the polymorphism (SNP rs 1761667) of the CD36 gene. Obese (n 50; BMI 34⋅97 (sd 4⋅02) kg/m2) exhibited a significantly higher oral detection threshold for OA (3⋅056 (sd 3⋅53) mmol/l) than did the normal-weight (n 50; BMI 22⋅16 (sd 1⋅81) kg/m2) participants (1⋅20 (sd 3⋅23) mmol/l; P = 0⋅007). There was a positive correlation between OA detection thresholds and BMI in all subjects; evenly with body fat percentage (BF%). AA genotype was more frequent in the obese group than normal-weight group. OA detection thresholds were much higher for AA and AG genotypes in obese subjects compared with normal-weight participants. Higher oral detection thresholds for fatty acid taste are related to BMI, BF% and not always to CD36 genotype.
Relapse in patients of opiod addiction is very common. Dynamics of addiction relapse are not fully understood as yet. Psychiatrists would explain it on basis neurotransmitter mediated disorders like anxiety, depression, OCD, lack of impulse control and etc. For sociologist relapse is an outcome of contradictions with in society. For a psychologist it is due to maladaptive life style. In this study integrated approach has been adopted to find out relative importance of different factors implicated in relapse.
Team of psychiatrists, psychologists, addiction counselor identified different causes of relapse in patients with opiod addiction. They designed graded scale in which 10 factors were included. Study group was comprised of hundred relapsed patients. They filled Performa’s according to their personal experiences. Regression method was used for factor analysis.
Statistical analysis revealed that peer group pressure, anhedonia, and premature ejaculation are first, second and third, factors respectively. Factors like pains and aches, insomnia, impulsivity and etc followed.
Every relapse prevention program should adopt policy keeping in view relative importance of causes of relapse. For peer pressure narcotic anonymous meeting is the best solution. Anhedonia is due to reduction dopaminergic input at nucleus accumben. Dopamine agonist drugs like bupropion can be used for that. Inordinate sexual behavior and substance abuse are strongly associated. Premature ejaculation plays vital role in relapse of patients of opiod addiction. Sex therapy and drugs like SSRI,s and gabapentine can improve intra vaginal latency time.
Factor analysis can be helpful in relapse prevention program.
Erectile dysfunction is twice common in patient with depression. Testosterone plays vital role in erectile function. Low testosterone level is found in patients of depression. High level of prolactin has depressive effect on libido function. Hypogonadism and hyperprolactinemia can be the causative factor for depression. Hormonal changes can be both cause and effect of depression with ED.
In sample of 76 patients having depression with co morbid ED blood levels of prolactin, and free testosterone were determined.
Half of patients were treated with sex friendly antidepressants while in other half mesterolone and piribedil were used as adjunct medicines.
In 9.2% free testosterone level was below than reference value. In 28.9% prolactin level was high .51 .31% were found having border line free testosterone level.
In younger age group free testosterone level was lower than older age group. There exist inverse relation between prolactin level and free testosterone level. Patients who were given adjunct medication showed rapid improvement both for depression and erectile dysfunction.
Reduced level of free testosterone and high level of prolactin has bilateral relation with depression with co morbid ED. Although prevalence of hypogonadism and hyperprolactinemia is low in the study yet high numbers of borderline cases are of great significance. It is postulated that fall in sexual function is directly proportional to change in levels of these hormones from the base line that are reversed by adjunct medicines.
In patients with concomitant major depression and erectile dysfunction hormonal changes plays important role.
To determine incidence of complicated grief in the families of enforced disappearance in the conflict torn Kashmir valley. Complicated GRIEF is a recently identified symptom complex marked by continued separation distress and bereavement related accompanying traumatic distress.
A total of 100 family members who were recruited from a workshop conducted by department of psychiatry and MEDICENS SAN FRONTIERS with family members of enforced disappearances were screened by psychiatrists.
COMPLICATED GREIF was very prevalent, 79% screened positive for complicated grief, PTSD was present in 30% of screened, 41% met criteria for major depressive disorder, 38% neither met criteria for major depressive disord: er nor PTSD, even though everybody who met criteria for PTSD had major depressive disorder as comorbidity.
COMPLICATED GRIEF is a important diagnosis in this subgroup of population and results into significant distress and dysfunction and hence warrants attention.
Earthquake disaster of Pakistan in 2005 caused massive destruction. Death toll was more than 70000. Many survivors were diagnosed as having variable anxiety disorders including panic disorder and PTSD. Frequency of female patients was much higher than male. The major factors responsible are loss of life and property and uncertainty regarding future, harsh weather and repeated tremors.
Data was collected from various agencies including WHO, Turkish Red Crescent, Canadian team of relief and some other NGOs working with earth quake hit area. Diagnosis was made using semi-structured interviews.
Data analyses of women (1056), men (281) and children (204) indicate high prevalence of anxiety disorders including PTSD (853 women, 153 men) and depression (73 women, 31 men). Results vary from the observations made from other disasters. Sex ratio shows huge difference in prevalence between males and females.
Patients with PTSD have dysregulation of HPA axis response. This alteration is more pronounced in case of women. Studies show that estrogen plays important role in the genesis of disease. Dexamethasone suppression test also indicates greater dysregulation of glucocorticoid receptor. Studies reveal predisposition in women for PTSD and depression.
Women and children were affected most because most of them were at home and in schools. Hence, they sustained more physical injuries and psychiatric consequences.
In our study depression came out to be more prevalent in females. This can be explained as comorbidity of PTSD and because of its own dynamics.
After exposure to trauma male and female respond differently.
To assess treatment-seeking behaviour in psychiatric patients with co-morbid infertility.
METHODology: This hospital-based prospective study was conducted on out-patients, consulted at NMI (Neuro-spinal & medical Institute), Karachi.All consecutive and consenting cases were interviewed using a semi-structured proforma. Results were tabulated and analyzed through SPSS Version 11.0. Fisher Exact test/Chi-square test were used to compare variables.
One hundred five cases (62.85% Men and 37.14% Women) that fulfilled the criteria of infertility were evaluated. More than half (51.42%) of the cases had sought alternative type of treatment including treatment from Faith Healers (19.04%), Hakeems (Eastern/Indigenous Practitioners=18.09%) and Homoeopathics(14.28%). The rest of the cases had history of multiple consultations with Allopathic medical practitioners.
The impact of Infertility is serious especially in the east making a person vulnerable to seek help from the various available source of treatment particularly traditional/ alternative mode.
Attention, working memory (WM), information processing and memory deficits are important features of schizophrenia. WM functions appear to be mediated by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Functional imaging studies have shown a failure to activate the DLPFC during working memory tasks in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The primary aim of this study is to determine whether there are brain activation changes in the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as a result of engaging in a randomized, controlled 12 week course of cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) in inpatients with chronic schizophrenia.
Patients with DSM IV schizophrenia are randomized to a 12 week trial of Cognitive Remediation (CR) using a Computerized CR program (COGPACK) or to a 12-week control condition. Patients receive at baseline and endpoint an fMRI scan with a cognitive task (N-back task), a neuropsychological test battery (MATRICS), functional and symptom assessments.
Preliminary results of this ongoing study show that patients after 12 weeks of CR showed (1) significantly more improvement in WM functions than patients who participated in the control group and (2) improvement in accuracy on the verbal letter 2-back task during the fMRI scan. Signal difference between 2-back and 0-back was not present or only present minimally at baseline (Pre-CR); however, at endpoint (Post-CR) there was signal difference present, which corresponds to an increase in activation in the areas of the DLPFC. This increase in activation pattern may be reflective of the effects of the exposure to the CR intervention.
Ego defense mechanisms, defined by Freud as unconscious resources used by the ego to reduce conflict between the id and superego, are a reflection of how an individual deals with conflict and stress. Vaillants’ proposed Hierarchy of Defenses states that mature defenses are associated with better adaptive functioning and health, as opposed to immature defense which are correlated negatively with measures of adaptive adult functioning.
This study assesses the prevalence of various ego defense mechanisms employed by medical students of Karachi, which is a group with higher stress levels than the general population.
A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was conducted on 682 students from five major medical colleges of Karachi in November 2006. Ego defense mechanisms were assessed using the Defense Style Questionnaire(DSQ-40) individually and as grouped under Mature, Immature, and Neurotic factors.
Neurotic defenses had a higher mean score(5.62) than Mature(5.60) and Immature(4.78) mechanisms. Immature mechanisms were more commonly employed by males whereas females employed more Neurotic mechanisms than males. Neurotic and Immature defenses were significantly more prevalent in first and second year students. Mature mechanisms were significantly higher in students enrolled in Government colleges than Private institutions (p< 0.05).
Neurotic mechanisms are more commonly encountered than Mature or Immature mechanisms among medical students of Karachi, and this could reflect greater stress levels than the general population. Employment of these mechanisms was associated with female gender, enrollment in a private medical college, and students enrolled in the first 2 years of medical school.
To assess the presence of communicability and regret in cases of deliberate self harm in a tertiary care hospital. to establish relation of communicability as a preventive sign and regret as a good prognostic sign in cases of deliberate self harm.
All consecutive patients with deliberate self harm presented to the emergency department during a 1 year period were assessed on a preformed Performa designed by authors after being declared physically fit and were screened by Standardized Assessment of Personality Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS), PSLES, HAM-D and HAM-A.
Majority of respondents screened negative by SAPAS scoring. Most of the patient had significant stress in life .Most of them had marital conflicts, family conflicts and economic burden as major stressor leading to suicidal behavior. Verbal communication was the most common mode of communication. Most of the subjects 86.3% (69 out of 80) had severe regret about their attempt of deliberate self harm. It developed a high motivation in them not to attempt suicide next time in life.
Most of the suicidal acts are impulsive in nature and are not associated with any psychiatric co morbidity. Our study showed that if communicability is enhanced and this is considered seriously, providing supportive care by family most of the suicidal acts can be avoided. Regret arising after the suicidal act can be used to motivate the subject of deliberate self harm to avoid repetition of future attempts.
Multimorbidity may impose an overwhelming burden on patients with psychosis and is affected by gender and age. Our aim is to study the independent role of familial liability to psychosis as a risk factor for multimorbidity.
We performed the study within the framework of the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) project. Overall, we compared 1024 psychotic patients, 994 unaffected siblings and 566 controls on the prevalence of 125 lifetime diseases, and 19 self-reported somatic complaints. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more complaints/diseases in the same individual. Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) were used to investigate the effects of gender, age (adolescent, young, older) and familial liability (patients, siblings, controls) and their interactions on multimorbidity.
Familial liability had a significant effect on multimorbidity of either complaints or diseases. Patients had a higher prevalence of multimorbidity of complaints compared to siblings (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.79–2.69, P < 0.001) and to controls (3.05, 2.35–3.96, P < 0.001). In physical health multimorbidity, patients (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05–1.75, P = 0.018), but not siblings, had significantly higher prevalence than controls. Similar finding were observed for multimorbidity of lifetime diseases, including psychiatric diseases. Significant results were observed for complaints and disease multimorbidity across gender and age groups.
Multimorbidity is a common burden, significantly more prevalent in patients and their unaffected siblings. Familial liability to psychosis showed an independent effect on multimorbidity; gender and age are also important factors determining multimorbidity.
Oxleas NHS Foundation Trust has run a Court Diversion Service in South East London since 1991. It provides services for people within the earlier stages of the Criminal Justice System.
This evaluation aims to combine data from across the 25-year period since the introduction of the diversion scheme. It seeks to provide a longitudinal picture to elucidate the impact of service changes during this time.
The evaluation uses data obtained from a variety of sources for four points in time: 2015/2016, 2011, 1999 and 1991. Data across domains was collated to allow longitudinal analysis.
After the initial introduction of the scheme in 1991, the total mean time on remand was noted to drop from 67.1 days to 49.5 days (P < 0.001). There were 280 referrals over 18 months in 1991, 210 per year in 1999, 190 in 2011 and 174 between April 2015 and March 2016. Violent crimes increased from 29% in 1991 to 47% in 2011. The proportion with schizophrenia decreased from 31% in 1991 to 18% in 1999, before increasing again to 25% in 2011. The use of Section 37 hospital order disposal decreased from 15% in 1991 to just 4% in 2011.
The court diversion scheme has produced significant benefits since it was introduced in 1991, despite a rise in the proportion of violent alleged offences. Changes to the service have seen decreased use of hospital orders.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
To examine the factors that are associated with changes in depression in people with type 2 diabetes living in 12 different countries.
People with type 2 diabetes treated in out-patient settings aged 18–65 years underwent a psychiatric assessment to diagnose major depressive disorder (MDD) at baseline and follow-up. At both time points, participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the WHO five-item Well-being scale (WHO-5) and the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale which measures diabetes-related distress. A composite stress score (CSS) (the occurrence of stressful life events and their reported degree of ‘upset’) between baseline and follow-up was calculated. Demographic data and medical record information were collected. Separate regression analyses were conducted with MDD and PHQ-9 scores as the dependent variables.
In total, there were 7.4% (120) incident cases of MDD with 81.5% (1317) continuing to remain free of a diagnosis of MDD. Univariate analyses demonstrated that those with MDD were more likely to be female, less likely to be physically active, more likely to have diabetes complications at baseline and have higher CSS. Mean scores for the WHO-5, PAID and PHQ-9 were poorer in those with incident MDD compared with those who had never had a diagnosis of MDD. Regression analyses demonstrated that higher PHQ-9, lower WHO-5 scores and greater CSS were significant predictors of incident MDD. Significant predictors of PHQ-9 were baseline PHQ-9 score, WHO-5, PAID and CSS.
This study demonstrates the importance of psychosocial factors in addition to physiological variables in the development of depressive symptoms and incident MDD in people with type 2 diabetes. Stressful life events, depressive symptoms and diabetes-related distress all play a significant role which has implications for practice. A more holistic approach to care, which recognises the interplay of these psychosocial factors, may help to mitigate their impact on diabetes self-management as well as MDD, thus early screening and treatment for symptoms is recommended.
A 73-year-old male with a history of chronic ataxia presented with transient facial droop to the Emergency Department. A CT angiogram and MRI with diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) were negative for stroke. However, incidental note was made of numerous giant arachnoid granulation pits in the posterior fossa predominantly involving the left occipital bone (Figure 1). These arachnoid pits demonstrated multiple foci of herniation of the adjacent cerebellar parenchyma into the pits with gliosis of the herniated parenchyma and focal encephalomalacia of the subjacent cerebellar parenchyma. Review of bone windows on a remote CT brain performed almost 13 years earlier confirmed this to be a longstanding abnormality (Figure 2). The patient’s physical exam was suggestive of cerebellar ataxia with left-sided dysmetria on finger to nose testing and a wide-based unsteady gait.
In the present study, an effective secondary selection of transgressive variants from a homozygous population of Pusa Sugandh 3 (PS3) has led to the development of basmati variant SKUA 494. SKUA 494 exhibited a grain yield (7.9 t/ha) with superiority of 21.5% over its progenitor (6.5 t/ha). Besides, the genotype revealed an earliness of about 13 and 15 days for flowering and maturity, respectively. Hulling, milling and head rice recovery traits of SKUA 494 were comparatively better over the controls PS3 and Pusa Basmati 1509. No significant differences in the cooking quality were observed in SKUA 494 over its parental line. Quality traits of SKUA 494 revealed an intermediate score for alkali spreading value, besides similar values for gel consistency and amylose content in comparison to PS3. On the basis of stability variables, stability index and overall mean for most of the traits, SKUA 494 depicted stable performance across the locations and over the years. Molecular analysis based on simple sequence repeat markers revealed polymorphism at locus flanking the quantitative trait loci for days to heading (Hd6) between SKUA 494 and its parent (PS3). Based on overall superiority in the performance and adaptability of SKUA 494, the variety has been recommended to farmers for general cultivation under temperate ecology.
The purpose of this study is the verification of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) head neck treatment planning with one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) dosimeters using imaging and radiation oncology core (IROC) Houston head & neck (H&N) phantom.
The image of the H&N phantom was obtained by computed tomography scan which was then transferred to Pinnacle@3 treatment planning system (TPS) for treatment planning. The contouring of the target volumes and critical organ were done manually and dose constraints were set for each organ according to IROC prescription. The plan was optimised by adoptive convolution algorithm to meet the IROC criteria and collapse cone convolution algorithm calculated the delivered doses for treatment. Varian Clinac 2110 was used to deliver the treatment plan to the phantom, the process of irradiation and measurement were repeated three times for reproducibility and reliability. The treatment plan was verified by measuring the doses from thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and GafChromic external beam therapy 2 films. The agreement between the planned and delivered doses were checked by calculating the percentage dose differences, analysing their isodose line profiles and 2D gamma maps.
The average percent dose difference of 1·8% was obtained between computed doses by TPS and measured doses from TLDs, however these differences were found to be higher for organ at risk. The film dose profile was well in agreement with the planned dose distribution with distance to agreement of 1·5 mm. The gamma analysis of the computed and recorded doses passed the criteria of 3%/3 mm with passing percentages of >96%, which shows successful authentication of delivered doses for IMRT.
IMRT pre-treatment validation can be done with IROC anthropomorphic phantoms, which is essential for the delivery of modulated radiotherapies. It was concluded that films and TLDs can be used as quality assurance tools for IMRT.