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Manuscripts pertaining to paediatric cardiology and CHD have been published in a variety of different journals. Some of these journals are journals dedicated to paediatric cardiology, while others are focused on adult cardiology. Historically, it has been considered that manuscripts published in journals devoted to adult cardiology have greater citation potential. Our objective was to compare citation performance between manuscripts related to paediatric cardiology and CHD published in paediatric as opposed to adult cardiology journals.
We identified manuscripts related to paediatric cardiology and CHD published in five journals of interest during 2014. Of these journals, two were primarily concerned with adult cardiology, while the other three focused on paediatric cardiology. The number of citations for these identified manuscripts was gathered from Google Scholar. We compared the number of citations (median, mean, and 25th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles), the potential for citation, and the h-index for the identified manuscripts.
We identified a total of 828 manuscripts related to paediatric cardiology and congenital heart as published in the 5 journals during 2014. Of these, 783 (95%) were published in journals focused on paediatric cardiology, and the remaining 45 (5%) were published in journals focused on adult cardiology. The median number of citations was 41 in the manuscripts published in the journals focused on adult cardiology, as opposed to 7 in journals focused on paediatric cardiology (p < 0.001). The h-index, however, was greater for the journals dedicated to paediatric cardiology (36 versus 27).
Approximately one-twentieth of the work relating to paediatric cardiology and CHD is published in journals that focus predominantly on adult cardiology. The median number of citations is greater when manuscripts concerning paediatric cardiology and CHD are published in these journals focused on adult cardiology. The h-index, however, is higher when the manuscripts are published in journals dedicated to paediatric cardiology. While such publications in journals that focus on adult cardiology tend to generate a greater number of citations than those achieved for works published in specialised paediatric cardiology journals, the potential for citation is no different between the journals. Due to the drastically lower number of manuscripts published in journals dedicated to adult cardiology, however, median performance is different.
Among 353 healthcare personnel in a longitudinal cohort in 4 hospitals in Atlanta, Georgia (May–June 2020), 23 (6.5%) had severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies. Spending >50% of a typical shift at the bedside (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.2–10.5) and black race (OR, 8.4; 95% CI, 2.7–27.4) were associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity.
A fully three-dimensional boundary-integral method (BIM) is developed for the interaction of drops, suspended in a uniform far-field flow at small Reynolds number, with arbitrary Lyapunov surfaces. The close approach of fluid interfaces to solid surfaces poses significant challenges for numerical BIM implementations, due to the highly singular behaviour of single- and double-layer boundary integrals. Two new methods are described that generalize the accurate calculation of the highly singular surface integrals used by high-order desingularization techniques. The first method is semi-analytical, and applies to axisymmetric solid obstacles (in an arbitrary three-dimensional configuration). An axisymmetric particle can be divided into a series of characteristic disks along its axis, for which closed-form expressions for single and double layers are derived in terms of elliptic integrals. To accommodate arbitrary smooth surfaces, a multimesh desingularization method is introduced that calculates surface integrals utilizing a hierarchy of embedded mesh resolutions, together with distance-activated mesh interactions. Several particle shapes, including spherocylinders (capsules) and flat plates, are used to represent major classes characteristic of porous media. A droplet approaching a capsule will break up after forming two lobes, connected by a thin filament, on either side of the capsule. The cross-sectional shape of the filament affects lubrication behaviour. A constriction made of two parallel capsules, even of low aspect ratio, significantly retards drop passage compared to two spheres. Trends in drop squeezing between two capsules are summarized over a range of capillary number, viscosity ratio, drop size and capsule length. A constriction of two coplanar plates results in notably different lubrication and squeezing behaviour. Flow rectification is demonstrated for constrictions that are non-symmetrical with respect to flow reversal, for several non-axisymmetric particles.
Precise instrumental calibration is of crucial importance to 21-cm cosmology experiments. The Murchison Widefield Array’s (MWA) Phase II compact configuration offers us opportunities for both redundant calibration and sky-based calibration algorithms; using the two in tandem is a potential approach to mitigate calibration errors caused by inaccurate sky models. The MWA Epoch of Reionization (EoR) experiment targets three patches of the sky (dubbed EoR0, EoR1, and EoR2) with deep observations. Previous work in Li et al. (2018) and (2019) studied the effect of tandem calibration on the EoR0 field and found that it yielded no significant improvement in the power spectrum (PS) over sky-based calibration alone. In this work, we apply similar techniques to the EoR1 field and find a distinct result: the improvements in the PS from tandem calibration are significant. To understand this result, we analyse both the calibration solutions themselves and the effects on the PS over three nights of EoR1 observations. We conclude that the presence of the bright radio galaxy Fornax A in EoR1 degrades the performance of sky-based calibration, which in turn enables redundant calibration to have a larger impact. These results suggest that redundant calibration can indeed mitigate some level of model incompleteness error.
Background: Automated testing instruments (ATIs) are commonly used by clinical microbiology laboratories to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), whereas public health laboratories may use established reference methods such as broth microdilution (BMD). We investigated discrepancies in carbapenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) among Enterobacteriaceae tested by clinical laboratory ATIs and by reference BMD at the CDC. Methods: During 2016–2018, we conducted laboratory- and population-based surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) through the CDC Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites (10 sites by 2018). We defined an incident case as the first isolation of Enterobacter spp (E. cloacae complex or E. aerogenes), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, or K. variicola resistant to doripenem, ertapenem, imipenem, or meropenem from normally sterile sites or urine identified from a resident of the EIP catchment area in a 30-day period. Cases had isolates that were determined to be carbapenem-resistant by clinical laboratory ATI MICs (MicroScan, BD Phoenix, or VITEK 2) or by other methods, using current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria. A convenience sample of these isolates was tested by reference BMD at the CDC according to CLSI guidelines. Results: Overall, 1,787 isolates from 112 clinical laboratories were tested by BMD at the CDC. Of these, clinical laboratory ATI MIC results were available for 1,638 (91.7%); 855 (52.2%) from 71 clinical laboratories did not confirm as CRE at the CDC. Nonconfirming isolates were tested on either a MicroScan (235 of 462; 50.9%), BD Phoenix (249 of 411; 60.6%), or VITEK 2 (371 of 765; 48.5%). Lack of confirmation was most common among E. coli (62.2% of E. coli isolates tested) and Enterobacter spp (61.4% of Enterobacter isolates tested) (Fig. 1A), and among isolates testing resistant to ertapenem by the clinical laboratory ATI (52.1%, Fig. 1B). Of the 1,388 isolates resistant to ertapenem in the clinical laboratory, 1,006 (72.5%) were resistant only to ertapenem. Of the 855 nonconfirming isolates, 638 (74.6%) were resistant only to ertapenem based on clinical laboratory ATI MICs. Conclusions: Nonconfirming isolates were widespread across laboratories and ATIs. Lack of confirmation was most common among E. coli and Enterobacter spp. Among nonconfirming isolates, most were resistant only to ertapenem. These findings may suggest that ATIs overcall resistance to ertapenem or that isolate transport and storage conditions affect ertapenem resistance. Further investigation into this lack of confirmation is needed, and CRE case identification in public health surveillance may need to account for this phenomenon.
On Hawai‘i Island, an increase in human neuroangiostrongyliasis cases has been primarily associated with the accidental ingestion of Angiostrongylus cantonensis L3 in snails or slugs, or potentially, from larvae left behind in the slug's slime or feces. We evaluated more than 40 different treatments in vitro for their ability to kill A. cantonensis larvae with the goal of identifying a safe and effective fruit and vegetable wash in order to reduce the risk of exposure. Our evaluation of treatment lethality was carried out in two phases; initially using motility as an indicator of larval survival after treatment, followed by the development and application of a propidium iodide staining assay to document larval mortality. Treatments tested included common household products, consumer vegetable washes and agricultural crop washes. We found minimal larvicidal efficacy among consumer-grade fruit and vegetable washes, nor among botanical extracts such as those from ginger or garlic, nor acid solutions such as vinegar. Alkaline solutions, on the other hand, as well as oxidizers such as bleach and chlorine dioxide, did show larvicidal potential. Surfactants, a frequent ingredient in detergents that lowers surface tension, had variable results, but dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid as a 70% w/w solution in 2-propanol was very effective, both in terms of the speed and the thoroughness with which it killed A. cantonensis L3 nematodes. Thus, our results suggest promising directions for future investigation.
Pelagic seabird populations have declined strongly worldwide. In the North Atlantic there was a huge reduction in seabird populations following the European colonization of the Azores, Madeira and Canary archipelagos but information on seabird status and distribution for the subtropical region of Cabo Verde is scarce, unavailable or dispersed in grey literature. We compiled and compared the historical and current distribution of all seabird species breeding in the Cabo Verde archipelago, updated their relative abundance, investigated their inland habitat preferences, and reviewed their threats. Currently, the breeding seabird community in Cabo Verde is composed of Bulwer’s Petrel Bulweria bulwerii, White-faced Storm-petrel Pelagodroma marina aedesorum, Cape Verde Shearwater Calonectris edwardsii, Cape Verde Storm-petrel Hydrobates jabejabe, Cape Verde Petrel Pterodroma feae, Boyd's Shearwater Puffinus lherminieri boydi, Brown Booby Sula leucogaster, and Red-billed Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus. One breeding species is currently extinct, the Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens. The relative abundance of Cape Verde Shearwater, Boyd’s Shearwater, Cape Verde Petrel, and Cape Verde Storm-petrel was determined from counts of their nocturnal calls in Santo Antão, São Vicente, Santa Luzia, Branco, Raso and São Nicolau. Cape Verde Petrel occurred only on mountainous islands (Santo Antão, São Nicolau, Santiago, and Fogo) from mid-to high elevations. Larger species such as the Cape Verde Shearwater and Boyd’s Shearwater exhibited a wider distribution in the archipelago, occurring close to the coastline but at lower densities on populated islands. Small procellariforms such as the Cape Verde Storm-petrel occurred at high densities only on rat-free islets and in steep areas of main islands where introduced cats and rats are unlikely to occur. The main threats to seabird populations in Cabo Verde range from predation by introduced predators, habitat alteration or destruction, and some residual human persecution.
Introduction: Emergency care serves as an important health resource for First Nations (FN) persons. Previous reporting shows that FN persons visit emergency departments at almost double the rate of non-FN persons. Working collaboratively with FN partners, academic researchers and health authority staff, the objective of this study is to investigate FN emergency care patient visit statistics in Alberta over a five year period. Methods: Through a population-based retrospective cohort study for the period from April 1, 2012 to March 31, 2017, patient demographics and emergency care visit characteristics for status FN patients in Alberta were analyzed and compared to non-FN statistics. Frequencies and percentages (%) describe patients and visits by categorical variables (e.g., Canadian Triage Acuity Scale (CTAS)). Means and standard deviations (medians and interquartile ranges (IQR)) describe continuous variables (e.g., distances) as appropriate for the data distribution. These descriptions are repeated for the FN and non-FN populations, separately. Results: The data set contains 11,686,288 emergency facility visits by 3,024,491 unique persons. FN people make up 4.8% of unique patients and 9.4% of emergency care visits. FN persons live further from emergency facilities than their non-FN counterparts (FN median 6 km, IQR 1-24; vs. non-FN median 4 km, IQR 2-8). FN visits arrive more often by ground ambulance (15.3% vs. 10%). FN visits are more commonly triaged as less acute (59% CTAS levels 4 and 5, compared to non-FN 50.4%). More FN visits end in leaving without completing treatment (6.7% vs. 3.6%). FN visits are more often in the evening – 4:01pm to 12:00am (43.6% vs. 38.1%). Conclusion: In a collaborative validation session, FN Elders and health directors contextualized emergency care presentation in evenings and receiving less acute triage scores as related to difficulties accessing primary care. They explained presentation in evenings, arrival by ambulance, and leaving without completing treatment in terms of issues accessing transport to and from emergency facilities. Many factors interact to determine FN patients’ emergency care visit characteristics and outcomes. Further research needs to separate the impact of FN identity from factors such as reasons for visiting emergency facilities, distance traveled to care, and the size of facility where care is provided.
An interim analysis of 1 year outcomes in schizophrenia patients enrolled in e-STAR in Australia and treated with RLAI continuously for 12 months.
e-STAR is a secure web-based, international, long-term (1 year retrospective, 2 years prospective) observational study of schizophrenia patients who initiate a new antipsychotic drug during their routine clinical management.
Currently, 315 patients have received RLAI continuously for 12 months; mean age 39.6 years, 68.9% male, mean duration of illness at baseline 11.8 years. Mean Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S) scores at baseline (4.6) decreased significantly at 3, 6 and 12 months (n=284) (4.0, 3.7, 3.7, respectively; all p<0.001 vs baseline) indicating a reduction in illness severity from moderately-marked to mildly-moderate at month 3 and maintained to 1 year. The proportion of patients with CGI-S scores of 1–3 (not ill to mild severity) increased from 12.7% at baseline to 40.8% at 12 months (p<0.0001). Mean Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale scores improved from 41.7 at baseline (serious impairment) to 56.7 (moderate impairment) at 12 months with improvements evident from month 3 after the start of RLAI (p<0.001 for both timepoints). Other significant improvements included fewer hospital stays (p<0.001) and rehospitalisations (p<0.001), reduced suicidal ideation (p=0.008) and violent behaviour (p=0.03), and decreased use of concomitant psychiatric medication.
These interim data show that a significant degree of clinical improvement and reduction in hospitalisation occurs early at 3 months in patients treated with RLAI and is maintained with continued treatment over 12 months.
To evaluate changes in the use of non-antipsychotic concomitant medication related to schizophrenia in patients enrolled in e-STAR in Belgium (B), Spain (S) and Australia (A) who were initiated on RLAI.
e-STAR is a secure web-based, international, long-term (1 year retrospective and 2 year prospective) ongoing observational study of schizophrenia patients who initiate a new antipsychotic drug during their routine clinical management. Data reported here are for patients enrolled to date in B, S and A who had information available about the use of concomitant medication at baseline and at 6 months after the start of RLAI.
Of 1,605 evaluable patients (B, n=180; S, n=919; A, n=506), 73.7% received concomitant non-antipsychotic medication at baseline. This proportion had reduced to 60.3% at 6 months after the start of RLAI (82.2% to 71.7% for B, p<0.001; 72.8% to 54.8% for S, p<0.001; 72.3% to 66.2% for A, p=0.01). Reductions between baseline and 6 months were overall: for anticholinergics 29.4% to 17.0% and for antidepressants 22.9% to 19.3% (each p<0.05 for B; p<0.001 for S); for mood stabilisers 17.6% to 15.8% (p=0.01 for S); for benzodiazepines 48.9% to 39.0% (p<0.001 for S; p=0.002 for A); for somatic medication 16.9% to 16.0%. Conclusions. Following the start of RLAI, the use of concomitant non-antipsychotic medication for the management of symptoms associated with schizophrenia or its treatment declined significantly at 6 months compared to baseline.
The German version of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) has proven to show very high model fit in confirmative factor analyses with the established factors inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and problems with self-concept in both large healthy control and ADHD patient samples. This study now presents data on the psychometric properties of the German CAARS-self-report (CAARS-S) and observer-report (CAARS-O) questionnaires.
CAARS-S/O and questions on sociodemographic variables were filled out by 466 patients with ADHD, 847 healthy control subjects that already participated in two prior studies, and a total of 896 observer data sets were available. Cronbach's-alpha was calculated to obtain internal reliability coefficients. Pearson correlations were performed to assess test-retest reliability, and concurrent, criterion, and discriminant validity. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC-analyses) were used to establish sensitivity and specificity for all subscales.
Coefficient alphas ranged from .74 to .95, and test-retest reliability from .85 to .92 for the CAARS-S, and from .65 to .85 for the CAARS-O. All CAARS subscales, except problems with self-concept correlated significantly with the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), but not with the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). Criterion validity was established with ADHD subtype and diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria. Sensitivity and specificity were high for all four subscales.
The reported results confirm our previous study and show that the German CAARS-S/O do indeed represent a reliable and cross-culturally valid measure of current ADHD symptoms in adults.
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a condition that occurs when the entire brain is deprived of an adequate oxygen supply, and is often a complication of cardiac arrest or profound hypotension. This can result in poor outcomes including significant impairments in memory, cognition, and attention.
In the context of sparse literature reports on chronic delirum following cardiac arrest related HIE, we report a case of a 59 year old male patient with normal premorbid functioning who developed chronic confusional state following a hypoxic insult to the brain subsequent to cardiac arrest and try to highlight the challenges encountered during his clinical course and management.
This case highlights the presence of chronic delirium following hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy, an unfortunate consequence of cardiac arrest. It also highlights the problems encountered in managing such patients.
Mechanistic models (MMs) have served as causal pathway analysis and ‘decision-support’ tools within animal production systems for decades. Such models quantitatively define how a biological system works based on causal relationships and use that cumulative biological knowledge to generate predictions and recommendations (in practice) and generate/evaluate hypotheses (in research). Their limitations revolve around obtaining sufficiently accurate inputs, user training and accuracy/precision of predictions on-farm. The new wave in digitalization technologies may negate some of these challenges. New data-driven (DD) modelling methods such as machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) examine patterns in data to produce accurate predictions (forecasting, classification of animals, etc.). The deluge of sensor data and new self-learning modelling techniques may address some of the limitations of traditional MM approaches – access to input data (e.g. sensors) and on-farm calibration. However, most of these new methods lack transparency in the reasoning behind predictions, in contrast to MM that have historically been used to translate knowledge into wisdom. The objective of this paper is to propose means to hybridize these two seemingly divergent methodologies to advance the models we use in animal production systems and support movement towards truly knowledge-based precision agriculture. In order to identify potential niches for models in animal production of the future, a cross-species (dairy, swine and poultry) examination of the current state of the art in MM and new DD methodologies (ML, DL analytics) is undertaken. We hypothesize that there are several ways via which synergy may be achieved to advance both our predictive capabilities and system understanding, being: (1) building and utilizing data streams (e.g. intake, rumination behaviour, rumen sensors, activity sensors, environmental sensors, cameras and near IR) to apply MM in real-time and/or with new resolution and capabilities; (2) hybridization of MM and DD approaches where, for example, a ML framework is augmented by MM-generated parameters or predicted outcomes and (3) hybridization of the MM and DD approaches, where biological bounds are placed on parameters within a MM framework, and the DD system parameterizes the MM for individual animals, farms or other such clusters of data. As animal systems modellers, we should expand our toolbox to explore new DD approaches and big data to find opportunities to increase understanding of biological systems, find new patterns in data and move the field towards intelligent, knowledge-based precision agriculture systems.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
Neonates are at high risk of bleeding after open-heart surgery. We sought to determine pre-operative and intra-operative risk factors for increased bleeding after neonatal open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of neonates (0–30 days old) who underwent open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass from January, 2009, to March, 2013. Cardiac diagnosis; demographic and surgical data; and blood products, haemostatic agents, and anti-thrombotic agents administered before, during, and within 24 hours after surgery were abstracted from the electronic health record and anaesthesia records. The outcome of interest was chest tube output (in ml/kg body weight) within 24 hours. Relationships between chest tube output and putative associated factors were evaluated by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression.
The cohort consisted of 107 neonates, of whom 79% had a Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (STAT) Mortality Category of 4 or 5. Median chest tube output was 37 ml/kg (range 9–655 ml/kg). Age, African-American race, and longer durations of surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass each had statistically significant associations with increased chest tube output in unadjusted analyses. In multivariable analysis, African-American race retained an independent, statistically significant association with increased chest tube output; the geometric mean of chest tube output among African-American neonates was 71% higher than that of Caucasians (95% confidence interval, 29–125%; p = 0.001).
Among neonates with CHD undergoing open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, African-American race is independently associated with greater chest tube output over the first 24 hours post-operatively.
Meta-analyses suggest that clinical psychopathology is preceded by dimensional behavioral and cognitive phenotypes such as psychotic experiences, executive functioning, working memory and affective dysregulation that are determined by the interplay between genetic and nongenetic factors contributing to the severity of psychopathology. The liability to mental ill health can be psychometrically measured using experimental paradigms that assess neurocognitive processes such as salience attribution, sensitivity to social defeat and reward sensitivity. Here, we describe the TwinssCan, a longitudinal general population twin cohort, which comprises 1202 individuals (796 adolescent/young adult twins, 43 siblings and 363 parents) at baseline. The TwinssCan is part of the European Network of National Networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions in Schizophrenia project and recruited from the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey. The main objective of this project is to understand psychopathology by evaluating the contribution of genetic and nongenetic factors on subclinical expressions of dimensional phenotypes at a young age before the onset of disorder and their association with neurocognitive processes, such as salience attribution, sensitivity to social defeat and reward sensitivity.
Psychotic experiences (PEs) may be associated with injuries, but studies focusing specifically on low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs) are scarce. Thus, the current study examined the link between injuries and PEs in a large number of LAMICs.
Cross-sectional data were used from 242 952 individuals in 48 LAMICs that were collected during the World Health Survey in 2002–2004 to examine the association between traffic-related and other (non-traffic-related) forms of injury and PEs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were used to examine associations while controlling for a variety of covariates including depression.
In fully adjusted analyses, any injury [odds ratio (OR) 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85–2.31], traffic injury (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.53–2.21) and other injury (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.84–2.37) were associated with higher odds for PEs. Results from a country-wise analysis showed that any injury was associated with significantly increased odds for PEs in 39 countries with the overall pooled OR estimated by meta-analysis being 2.46 (95% CI 2.22–2.74) with a moderate level of between-country heterogeneity (I2 = 56.3%). Similar results were observed across all country income levels (low, lower-middle and upper-middle).
Different types of injury are associated with PEs in LAMICs. Improving mental health systems and trauma capacity in LAMICs may be important for preventing injury-related negative mental health outcomes.