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Difficulties with decision making and risk taking in individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) have been associated with mood episodes. However, there is limited information about these experiences during euthymia, the mood state where people with BD spent the majority of their time.
To examine how individuals with BD consider risk in everyday decisions during their euthymic phase.
We conducted a qualitative study that used semi-structured audio recorded interviews. Eight euthymic participants with confirmed BD were interviewed, and we used interpretative phenomenological analysis to analyse the data.
We identified four themes. The first theme, ‘Who I really am’, involves the relationship between individual identity and risks taken. The second theme, ‘Taking back control of my life’, explored the relationship between risks taken as participants strove to keep control of their lives. The third theme, ‘Fear of the “what ifs”’, represents how the fear of negative consequences from taking risks impacts risk decisions. Finally, the fourth theme, ‘The role of family and friends’, highlights the important role that a supporting network can play in their lives in the context of taking risks.
The study highlights aspects that can impact on an individual with BD’s consideration of risk during euthymia. Identity, control, fear and support all play a role when a person considers risk in their decision-making process, and they should be taken into consideration when exploring risk with individuals with BD in clinical settings, and inform the design of future interventions.
Collective bargaining in the public sector is under attack. Since 2011, numerous states have eliminated or severely curtailed public employee collective bargaining. For example, Oklahoma repealed its statute that provided collective bargaining rights for employees of mid-sized cities. Tennessee repealed a statute that for more than three decades had provided collective bargaining rights for teachers. The most visible development was Wisconsin’s enactment which, among other things, prohibited bargaining on all subjects except for increases in base wages which were capped at the increase in the Consumer Price Index, prohibited dues checkoff, and required that exclusive bargaining representatives undergo annual elections and receive the votes of at least 51 percent of all employees in the bargaining unit to remain certified. In 2017, Iowa followed Wisconsin’s model, prohibiting dues check-off, requiring annual recertification elections, and making base wages the only mandatory subject of bargaining, but not prohibiting bargaining on other subjects.
The first massive galaxies (z ∼ 6) have (1) very high energy density due to their small diameters and extreme luminosities in young stars and (2) interstellar dust relatively deficient in carbon compared with silicates. Both of these attributes should raise their interstellar dust temperatures compared with lower redshift galaxies. Not only is this temperature trend observed, but the high-z spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are very broad due to very warm dust. As a result total infrared luminosities – and star formation rates – at the highest redshifts estimated by fitting blackbodies to submm- and mm-wave observations can be low by a factor of ∼2.
We leverage new ultra-deep, high resolution, multi-frequency radio imaging at 6 and 3 GHz with the unique datasets available in the GOODS-S/HUDF region in order to assess the AGN fraction in a faint radio-selected sample. For AGN identification, we adopt a multi-wavelength approach, combining X-ray and (mid-)infrared (IR) selections with radio identification such as X-ray to radio excess, flat radio spectral slopes, and the radio-IR correlation. We identify AGN in 43% of our radio sample, yielding an AGN source density of ∼ 1 arcmin−2. This AGN fraction is likely underestimated, as 1) our shallower 3 GHz data is biased against flat radio spectrum sources and 2) all of our selections may be biased against the most heavily obscured AGN. The James Webb Space Telescope’s Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) will address the latter issue and we briefly outline our Cycle 1 Guaranteed Time Observation (GTO) program to search for heavily obscured AGN.
The ALMA twenty-six arcmin2 survey of GOODS-S at one millimeter (ASAGAO) is a deep (1σ ∼ 61μJy/beam) and wide area (26 arcmin2) survey on a contiguous field at 1.2 mm. By combining with archival data, we obtained a deeper map in the same region (1σ ∼ 30μJy/beam−1, synthesized beam size 0.59″ × 0.53″), providing the largest sample of sources (25 sources at 5σ, 45 sources at 4.5σ) among ALMA blank-field surveys. The median redshift of the 4.5σ sources is 2.4. The number counts shows that 52% of the extragalactic background light at 1.2 mm is resolved into discrete sources. We create IR luminosity functions (LFs) at z = 1–3, and constrain the faintest luminosity of the LF at 2 < z < 3. The LFs are consistent with previous results based on other ALMA and SCUBA-2 observations, which suggests a positive luminosity evolution and negative density evolution.
The role of panendoscopy in the modern investigation of head and neck cancer is changing with the development of improved radiological techniques, in-office biopsy capabilities and the low rate of synchronous primary tumours. This study aimed to review the indications for panendoscopy in the investigation of newly diagnosed head and neck cancer.
A retrospective review was conducted of 186 patients with newly diagnosed head and neck cancer, between January 2014 and December 2015, at two tertiary centres.
Obtaining a tissue diagnosis was the most common indication for panendoscopy (65 per cent), followed by surgical planning including transoral robotic surgery suitability assessment (22.6 per cent), and the investigation of carcinoma of an unknown primary (11.3 per cent). Two synchronous primary tumours were identified, generating a yield of 1.1 per cent.
Panendoscopy remains integral in the assessment of transoral robotic surgery suitability. Refining indications for modern panendoscopy could reduce the need for this procedure in this cohort of patients.
Background: Perinatal stroke is the most common cause of hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Post-stroke plasticity is well studied in adults, but mechanisms in children are poorly understood. To better understand the relationship between functional connectivity and disability, we used rsfMRI to compare connectivity with sensorimotor dysfunction. Methods: Subjects with periventricular venous infarction were compared to controls. Resting-state BOLD signal was acquired on 3T MRI and analyzed using SPM12. Functional connectivity was computed between S1 and M1 of the left/non-lesioned and right/ lesioned hemisphere. Primary outcome was connectivity expressed as a Pearson correlation coefficient. Motor function was measured using the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA), and Melbourne Assessment (MA). Proprioceptive function was measured using a robotic position matching task (VarXY). Results: Subjects included 17 PVI and 21 controls. AHA and MA in patients were negatively correlated with connectivity (increased connectivity=poorer performance). Correlations between AHA and connectivity between non-lesioned M1 to bilateral S1s were significant. VarXY in PVI was inversely correlated with connectivity (increased connectivity=improved performance), significantly between non-lesioned S1 and bilateral M1s. Control VarXY was positively correlated with connectivity between non-dominant S1 to bilateral M1s. Conclusions: We demonstrated significant correlations between connectivity and motor/sensory function in PVI patients. Greater insight into understanding reorganization of brain networks following perinatal stroke may facilitate personalized rehabilitation.
The authors of the earlier version of this book succeeded in accomplishing the goals stated in their preface. Since it was written, Dynamics: Theory and Applications has served as a textbook for teaching graduate students a method of formulating dynamical equations of motion for mechanical systems. The method has proved especially useful for dealing with the complex multibody mechanical systems that in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have challenged engineers in industry, government, and universities: the Galileo spacecraft sent to Jupiter, the International Space Station, and the robotic manipulator arms aiding astronauts on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station are but a few examples. Kane's method is systematic and easily taught, in a way that enables the student to be conversant with colleagues trained to apply traditional approaches found in the classical literature.
Although the fundamental aspects of the method have not changed during the past three decades, advances and refinements have been made in a number of areas. In certain cases the newer developments facilitate exposition of the topic at hand and lend themselves well to integration with material in the original textbook. The primary purpose of this text, then, is to make the benefits of this progress available for current courses in dynamics.
The preface to the earlier version (which immediately follows this Preface) includes a discussion of the organization of the original book and supporting rationale. Here, we give an overview of the modest alterations made to the earlier structure.
The initial chapter now begins with three brief sections that put the student into position to give a mathematical description of the orientation of a rigid body with respect to a reference frame, when the rigid body has been subjected to successive rotations. Inclusion of these sections provides a formal presentation of topics that typically were covered in classroom discussion. The final section of the first chapter is concerned with differentiation of a scalar function of vectors, which subsequently comes into play in Chapter 6. The original second chapter is divided in two; Chapter 2 deals solely with kinematics, and Chapter 3 is devoted to constraints. The separation focuses attention on the subject of constraints, where there are important distinctions to be made between Kane's method and the classical approaches.
The discipline of dynamics deals with changes of various kinds, such as changes in the position of a particle in a reference frame and changes in the configuration of a mechanical system. To characterize the manner in which some of these changes take place, one employs the differential calculus of vectors, a subject that can be regarded as an extension of material usually taught under the heading of the differential calculus of scalar functions. The extension consists primarily of provisions made to accommodate the fact that reference frames play a central role in connection with many of the vectors of interest in dynamics. A reference frame can be regarded as a massless rigid body, and a rigid body can serve as a reference frame. (A reference frame should not be confused with a coordinate system. Many coordinate systems can be embedded in a given reference frame.) The importance of reference frames in connection with change in a vector can be illustrated by considering the following example. Let A and B be reference frames moving relative to each other, but having one point O in common at all times, and let P be a point fixed in A, distinct from O and thus moving in B. Then the velocity of P in A is equal to zero, whereas the velocity of P in B differs from zero. Now, each of these velocities is a time derivative of the same vector, rOP, the position vector from O to P. Hence, it is meaningless to speak simply of the time derivative of rOP. Clearly, therefore, the calculus used to differentiate vectors must permit one to distinguish between differentiation with respect to a scalar variable in a reference frame A and differentiation with respect to the same variable in a reference frame B.
When working with elementary principles of dynamics, such as Newton's second law or the angular momentum principle, one needs only the ordinary differential calculus of vectors, that is, a theory involving differentiations of vectors with respect to a single scalar variable, generally the time. Consideration of advanced principles of dynamics, such as those presented in later chapters of this book, necessitates, in addition, partial differentiation of vectors with respect to several scalar variables, such as generalized coordinates and motion variables.