To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Global-scale 21st-century glacier mass change projections from six published global glacier models are systematically compared as part of the Glacier Model Intercomparison Project. In total 214 projections of annual glacier mass and area forced by 25 General Circulation Models (GCMs) and four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) emission scenarios and aggregated into 19 glacier regions are considered. Global mass loss of all glaciers (outside the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets) by 2100 relative to 2015 averaged over all model runs varies from 18 ± 7% (RCP2.6) to 36 ± 11% (RCP8.5) corresponding to 94 ± 25 and 200 ± 44 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE), respectively. Regional relative mass changes by 2100 correlate linearly with relative area changes. For RCP8.5 three models project global rates of mass loss (multi-GCM means) of >3 mm SLE per year towards the end of the century. Projections vary considerably between regions, and also among the glacier models. Global glacier mass changes per degree global air temperature rise tend to increase with more pronounced warming indicating that mass-balance sensitivities to temperature change are not constant. Differences in glacier mass projections among the models are attributed to differences in model physics, calibration and downscaling procedures, initial ice volumes and varying ensembles of forcing GCMs.
We have recently reported that multiple aster formation after in vitro fertilization (IVF) was one of the factors that negatively affected the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed bovine matured oocytes, and that short-term culture of the post-warm oocytes with an inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) suppressed the multiple aster formation and improved the blastocyst yield. The present study was conducted to investigate whether increased multiple aster formation following IVF was involved in impaired developmental competence of stored ovary-derived bovine oocytes. Oocytes retrieved from 1-day stored ovaries had lower developmental potential to day 8 blastocysts when compared with those from fresh ovaries (37 versus 63%). Immunostaining of α-tubulin 10 h post-IVF revealed that a higher incidence of multiple aster formation occurred in oocytes retrieved from stored ovaries than from fresh ovaries (31 versus 15%). Treatment of post-in vitro maturated (post-IVM) oocytes with ROCK inhibitor for 2 h significantly suppressed the incidence of multiple aster formation (10 versus 32% in the control group). However, the suppression effect of ROCK inhibitor on multiple aster formation in IVM/IVF oocytes did not improve blastocyst yield from stored ovary-derived oocytes (41 versus 37% in the control group). These results suggested that the higher incidence of multiple aster formation by bovine ovary storage was not responsible for the decreased developmental competence of IVF oocytes.
Although vitrification is a useful technique for preservation of bovine oocytes, the yield of blastocysts derived from the vitrified oocytes is still low. We have recently reported a new type of cryoinjury, multiple aster formation, by which pronuclear migration and development of vitrified–warmed and in vitro-fertilized bovine oocytes are impaired. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of glutathione (GSH) content of vitrified bovine oocytes on multiple aster formation and subsequent in vitro development. Treatment of bovine cumulus–oocyte complexes with β-mercaptoethanol (βME) and l-cysteine (Cys) during in vitro maturation resulted in 2.5-fold higher GSH content not only in fresh control but also in vitrified–warmed oocytes. The percentage of normally fertilized zygotes exhibiting sperm aster(s) was >95% in all four groups (with or without βME/Cys × fresh control or vitrified). The frequency of multiple aster formation in vitrified oocytes (three-fold higher than that in fresh control oocytes) was not affected by the increased level of intracellular GSH with βME/Cys. Consequently, the migration and development of pronuclei as well as the yield of blastocysts from vitrified–warmed oocytes (17 versus 41%) were not improved. In addition, there was no effect of increased GSH level on the yield of blastocysts in fresh control groups.
We have commenced a program to monitor the gravitational lens B1152+199 with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) to search for variability of the lensed components with the goal of measuring the lensing time delay. As part of this program we made a 9 hour full-synthesis observation in June 2000 to derive a ‘template’ for model-fitting the shorter, multi-epoch, monitoring observations. We report here on the results of this full-synthesis observation and on three additional epochs of monitoring for time variation.
Interspecies microinsemination assay was applied to examine the ability of minke whale haploid spermatogenic cells to induce Ca2+ oscillations and oocyte activation. Populations of round spermatids (RS), early-stage elongating spermatids (e-ES), late-stage elongating spermatids (1-ES) and testicular spermatozoa (TS) were cryopreserved in the presence of 7.5% glycerol on board ship in the Antarctic Ocean. Repetitive increases of intracellular Ca2+ concentration occurred in 0, 65, 81 and 96% of BDF1 mouse oocytes injected with the postthaw RS, e-ES, 1-ES and TS, respectively. A normal pattern of the Ca2+ oscillations was observed in 26–47% of the responding oocytes. Most oocytes that exhibited Ca2+ oscillations, regardless of the oscillation pattern, resumed meiosis (83–94%). These results indicate that whale spermatogenic cells acquire SOAF activity, which is closely related to their Ca2+ oscillation-inducing ability at the relatively early stage of spermiogenesis.
In February 1997 the Japanese radio astronomy satellite HALCA was launched to provide the space-borne element for the VSOP mission. HALCA provided linear baselines three-times greater than that of ground arrays, thus providing higher resolution and higher AGN brightness temperature measurements and limits. Twenty-five percent of the scientific time of the mission was devoted to the “VSOP survey” of bright, compact, extra-galactic radio sources at 5 GHz. A complete list of 294 survey targets were selected from pre-launch surveys, 91% of which were observed during the satellite's lifetime.
The major goals of the VSOP Survey are statistical in nature: to determine the brightness temperature and approximate structure, to provide a source list for use with future space VLBI missions, and to compare radio properties with other data throughout the electro-magnetic spectrum. All the data collected have now been analysed and is being prepared for the final image Survey paper. In this paper we present details of the mission, and some statistics of the images and brightness temperatures.
HALCA, the first dedicated satellite for space VLBI, was launched
in February 1997, and VSOP observations have been successfully
undertaken at 1.6 and 5 GHz. The near-future VSOP-2 mission is
planned to have frequency bands of 8, 22, and 43 GHz, with dual
polarization, a 1 Gbps downlink bit-rate, and a phase-referencing
capability. The mission proposal was submitted to ISAS/JAXA in
September 2003, with the earliest possible launch, if approved, in
2012. There must be other missions farther into the future, and mm
and sub-mm space VLBI must be realized as the ultimate high
resolution imaging instrument over the electro-magnetic spectrum.
ALMA and SKA can also play important roles for space VLBI.
Space VLBI enables high angular resolution and high dynamic range imaging through an extension of ground-based VLBI. The TDRSS space VLBI experiments in the 1980s were followed by the first space VLBI imaging mission, VSOP, in the 1990s. The new century holds the promise of the VSOP-2 and ARISE missions, which aim for more sensitive, higher angular resolution and higher observing frequency capabilities. These missions will enable AGNs to be viewed much more clearly and will make broader science areas, including lower brightness sources, accessible. It is noted that in all space VLBI missions, international collaboration in global sense plays an important role.
The VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) combines an orbiting radiotelescope with arrays of ground radio telescopes to extend the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique to baselines up to almost three Earth diameters. In this paper, we present results from VSOP observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) at 1.6 and 5 GHz from the first 3.5 years of the mission.
We are using the VSOP space VLBI mission to observe a complete sample of Pearson-Readhead survey sources at 4.8 GHz to determine core brightness temperatures and pc-scale jet properties. To date we have imaged 27 of the 31 objects in our sample. Our preliminary results show that the majority of objects contain strong core components that remain unresolved on baselines of 30,000 km. The brightness temperatures of several cores significantly exceed 1012 K, which is indicative of highly relativistically beamed emission. We also find that core brightness temperature is correlated with intraday variability in compact AGNs.
The VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) is the first dedicated Space-VLBI mission. We report here on the planning for a second generation mission which builds on and extends the successful collaborations established for the VSOP mission, and which aims to improve both resolution and sensitivity by a factor of ∼10.
The VSOP Survey Program contains 402 bright, small diameter extragalactic radio sources. Pre-launch observations indicated that 113 sources were probably undetectable on space-ground baselines, and so VSOP observations are being undertaken at 5 GHz of the remaining 289 sources. Progress to date is described.
About 40 hours of observing data received by the space radio telescope HALCA at L-band (1.6 GHz) were analyzed in order to investigate interference received by the space radio telescope. Autocorrelation spectra for this study were specially prepared at the DRAO S2-correlator with a 7.8125 kHz frequency resolution in each 16 MHz channel. It was found that during 20% of the observing time the interfering signal was above the tolerable level of 1% of total receiver noise in a 16 MHz channel. The major source of interference is identified with uplink communication from ships to geostationary satellites in the International Maritime Satellite service (INMARSAT). The frequency range allocated for INMARSAT is 1636.5–1645.0 MHz. INMARSAT uses four geostationary satellites, two of which are located above the Atlantic Ocean where the strongest interference was observed. To avoid this interference it is recommended to move the HALCA observing frequency range from the currently used 1634–1666 MHz to 1645–1677 MHz. A simple criterion is proposed to predict harmful interference from INMARSAT. This criterion may be used in scheduling of future HALCA observations at L-band.
The a- and b-axis resistivities and the a-axis magnetoresistivities applying magnetic field (B) along all three crystallographic axes in non-superconductive PrBa2Cu4O8 single crystals have been measured using four-probe method. Resistivitiy along the b-axis (parallel to double-chains) showed a highly conductive behavior, of which the origin is attributed to the double-chains because of a large anisotropic conduction between a- and b-axis directions. However, a metallic behavior along the a-axis was also observed in temperature region below 130 K, which could be understood in terms of presence of finite and coherent inter-chain interaction along the a-axis direction. This conclusion is derived from good agreement with values of mean-free path length in the double chain, lchain estimated from both the ρb-T curve and the a-axis MR applying B//c using quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) band model.
We describe the expected distribution of intensity for a scintillating source of finite size observed through a scattering medium, including systematic and instrumental effects. We describe measurements of the size of the Vela pulsar, using this technique.
The first VSOP satellite, HALCA, was successfully launched on 12 February 1997, ushering in a new era for VLBI astronomy. This paper will give a brief overview of the mission, satellite and the on-going In-Orbit Checkout of the mission elements.
On February 12, 1997 the world’s first dedicated VLBI spacecraft, HALCA, was successfully launched as the space borne element of the VSOP mission. This paper describes the calibration observations that have been undertaken so far with this spacecraft.
The VLBA map of the H2O maser IC 1396N, which was obtained during the VSOP pre-launch survey, shows an ordered position of maser spots. The maser spots are located along an almost straight line with the separation between extreme maser spots of 20 mas. The radial velocity varies along the line from by 3 km s−1. In total 9 maser features have been located on the line, all of them unresolved by the VLBA beam. This geometry is consistent with the disk model of masers. The mass of the disk is estimated between 10−7 and 10−4 M⊙, depending on the thickness and density. The disk must be supported by a central star with the mass of about 0.07 M⊙. The H2O maser in IC 1396N may be a proto-planetary disk around a low mass protostar in the process of accretion.
PKS 1830-211 is a strong, flat-spectrum compact double source with a component spacing of 1 arcsecond. Observations of PKS 1830-211 were made with the Japanese domestic VLBI network at 2.3 GHz and 8.4 GHz bands in sessions between December 1991 and November 1994. The Usuda 64 m (ISAS) and Kashima 34 m (CRL) telescopes were used for all observations, and were used in conjunction with the Mizusawa 10 m (NAO) for observations in 1994. In addition, the total flux was measured with the Usuda 64 m at both bands. Data was recorded using K3 and K4 formatters and recorders, and correlated with NAOCO (the New Advanced One-unit COrrelator of the National Astronomical Observatory).