To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A majority of the Finnish COVID-19 pandemic patients have been cared for in the HUS Helsinki University Hospital since March 2020.
June 2020 baseline results of an ongoing prospective cohort study are reported.
An electronic survey was created to assess potentially traumatic COVID-19 pandemic related events (PTEs) of the HUS personnel.
The survey was sent to 25494 HUS employees, and 4804 (19%) answered. Out of the respondents, 62% were nursing staff, 9% medical doctors, and the rest special employees or other personnel. Mean age was 44 years, 88% were female. PTEs were more common in the personnel directly caring for COVID-19 patients than other personnel (p< 0.001). PTEs predicted psychological distress among all personnel (OR 5.05; 95%CI 4.26–6.00). Table. Potentially traumatic events (PTEs) among HUS personnel, June 2020. One respondent may have one or more PTEs.
In direct care of COVID-19 patients
Yes (N; %)
No (N; %)
1Has your work with COVID-19 patients or suspected patients included exceptionally disturbing or distressing assignments? 2Have you had strong anxiety due to your own or close one’s risk of contracting serious illness for your work with COVID-19 patients or suspected patients? 3Have you or your close one contracted a hospital care requiring serious COVID-19? 4Has a close one to you died of COVID-19?
Our data highlight the need to ensure psychosocial support services to HUS personnel with PTEs.
In November 2007, a student shot eight people and himself at Jokela High School, Finland. This study aims to evaluate the long-term effects of exposure to a school shooting among adolescents.
Associations between psychological outcomes and background factors were analysed and compared with “comparison students” four months after the incident. A questionnaire including Impact of Event Scale (IES) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-36) was used.
Half of the females and a third of the males suffered from posttraumatic distress. High level of posttraumatic distress (IES ≥ 35), predicting PTSD, was observed in 27% of the females and 7% of the males. The odds ratio was 6.4 (95% confidence interval 3.5–10.5) for having high levels of posttraumatic distress. Severe or extreme exposure and female gender were found to increase the risk. Forty-two percent of the females and 16% of the males had psychiatric disturbance (GHQ ≥ 9). Severe or extreme exposure, older age and female gender increased the risk. Perceived support from family and friends was found to be protective.
The observed risk and protective factors were similar to earlier studies. Follow-up will be essential in identifying factors predicting persisting trauma-related symptoms in adolescence.
The influence of pharmaceutical industry (PI) on clinical practice and research in psychiatry has been considered a serious problem. Strict rules and guidelines were developed to regulate the interactions between doctors and PI. However, there is an ongoing debate whether these were thoroughly implemented in practice and internalized by physicians. The objective of our study was to assess the attitudes and behaviors of trainees in psychiatry and child & adolescent psychiatry toward PI across Europe. Methodologically, a validated questionnaire with additional items was administered to1444 trainees in 20 European countries. The minimum response rate was set at 60%. We found a high variation across countries in number of interactions between trainees and PI representatives; Portugal and Turkey had the highest number of interactions. The majority (59.76%) agreed that interactions with PI representatives have an impact on physicians’ prescribing behavior; whereas only 29.26% and 19.79% agreed interactions with PI representatives and gifts from PI have impact on their own prescribing behavior, respectively. Most of the gifts were considered appropriate by the majority, except tickets to vacation spot and social dinner at a restaurant. Of the sample, 70.76% think they have not been given sufficient training regarding how to interact with PI representatives. Only less than 20% indicated they have guidelines at institutional or national level. In conclusion, there is substantial interaction between trainees and PI across countries. The majority feel inadequately trained regarding professional interaction with PI, and believes they are immune to the influence of PI.
Interactions between the pharmaceutical industry (PI) and psychiatrists have been under scrutiny recently, though there is little empirical evidence on the nature of the relationship and its intensity at psychiatry trainee level. We therefore studied the level of PI interactions and the underlying beliefs and attitudes in a large sample of European psychiatric trainees.
One thousand four hundred and forty-four psychiatric trainees in 20 European countries were assessed cross-sectionally, with a 62-item questionnaire.
The total number of PI interactions in the preceding two months varied between countries, with least interactions in The Netherlands (M (Mean) = 0.92, SD = 1.44, range = 0–12) and most in Portugal (M = 19.06, SD = 17.44, range = 0–100). Trainees were more likely to believe that PI interactions have no impact on their own prescribing behaviour than that of other physicians (M = 3.30, SD = 1.26 vs. M = 2.39, SD = 1.06 on a 5-point Likert scale: 1 “completely disagree” to 5 “completely agree”). Assigning an educational role to the pharmaceutical industry was associated with more interactions and higher gift value (IRR (incidence rate ratio) = 1.21, 95%CI = 1.12–1.30 and OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.02–1.37).
There are frequent interactions between European psychiatric trainees and the PI, with significant variation between countries. We identified several factors affecting this interaction, including attribution of an educational role to the PI. Creating alternative educational opportunities and specific training dedicated to PI interactions may therefore help to reduce the impact of the PI on psychiatric training.
Structured self-reports, such as Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) are widely used in assessing adolescents’ psychological wellbeing.
To investigate what factors are associated with discrepancies between BDI scores and diagnostic assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients and general population.
To recognize what factors may contribute to high BDI scores besides depressive symptoms.
The study population consisted of 206 adolescents (13–17 years old) who were hospitalised for the first time in adolescent psychiatry and 203 age and gender matched adolescents recruited from schools in the same region. Study subjects filled self-reports on depression symptoms (BDI-21), substance misuse (AUDIT), psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90), defense styles (DSQ-40) and self-image (OSIQ). Diagnostics was based on K-SADS-PL interview, and/or clinical interview and clinical records when available. Information on background and life events was gathered from study subjects.
We compared subjects who scored in BDI-21 either 0–15 points or 16–63 points firstly among subjects who did not fill diagnostic criteria for current unipolar depression and secondly among those who did fulfill the diagnostic criteria. High BDI-21 scores in subjects without depression diagnosis were associated with female sex, older age, several adverse life events, higher psychiatric co-morbidity, worse self-image and more immature, neurotic and image-distorting defense styles (and less mature defense style). Low BDI-21 scores among subjects with depression diagnosis were associated with male sex, more positive self-image and less immature defense style.
High BDI-21 scores may reflect a broad range of challenges in an adolescent's psychological development even in the absence of depression.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.