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This chapter describes the evolution, characteristics, methodology, and practice of action research with particular attention to the importance of critical reflection. It examines the characteristics of action research with particular attention to the importance of critical reflection in the inquiry process. The chapter proceeds with a summary of the methods and approaches used in designing and implementing action research. It describes examples of action research to suggest the diversity of topics and analytic perspectives it encompasses. All studies reflect the voices of teacher-researchers on the multiple interpretations and practices of action research. They address the relationships between research, knowledge creation, and action that intertwine personal, professional, and political concerns. The studies are organized by three orientations to action research: professional orientation: knowledge production and professional development; personal orientation: self-awareness and identity; and political orientation: social change.
The Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) is composed of
many Filamentary Discharges (FDs), and it can be applied to ozone
generation, gaseous pollution control, etc. In our laboratory, we
investigated efficient cleaning methods of diesel exhaust gas by DBD. From
the results of numerical simulation of chemical reactions, a homogeneous DBD
was expected to improve the efficiency of pollution control and also the
ozone yield. Recently, we found that a DBD device using alumina as barrier
material can generate an Atmospheric Pressure Townsend Discharge (APTD) in
air. In this research, we setup two ozonizers with different discharge modes
of FD and APTD, and compared the ozone yield. The experimental results
showed that the ozone yield was higher by the FD mode than by the APTD mode
in lower Specific Input Energy (SIE) region. However in the region that the
SIE is larger than 420J/L, the APTD mode showed higher ozone yield than FD
The aim was to estimate the incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection in health-care workers (HCWs) in Japan. We repeated cross-sectional surveys of HCWs with QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT-G) in 2003, 2005 and 2007 at a hospital with tuberculosis (TB) wards, and 311 HCWs who underwent QFT-G testing two or three times were included in the study. Five HCWs (1·8%) converted from negative to positive. Incidence of new TB infection was estimated to be 0·6/100 person-years by the CDC's definition. Thirteen positive persons (41%) reverted from positive to negative. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified a significant association between QFT-G conversion and working in TB wards. The IFN-γ levels of all but two subjects with reverting or converting QFT-G results were close to the test's cut-off. The incidence of Mtb infection in HCWs at our hospital was higher than that estimated for the general population in Japan. Criteria for defining QFT-G conversion and reversion need further investigation considering the high proportion of reversion, as the incidence of infection would have changed if we had applied other definitions.
This study aimed to clarify the significance of cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein gene expression in human parotid gland tumours.
We retrospectively analysed immunohistochemical staining for cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein in parotid gland tumours.
Cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein was consistently detected in the normal parotid gland. Regarding benign parotid gland tumours, cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein was present in 13 of 18 pleomorphic adenomas, in all Warthin tumours tested (21/21) and in all cases of basal cell adenoma tested (four of four). In contrast, positive staining for cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein was less often observed in malignant parotid tumours. Cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein was present in 11 of 14 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, in two of five acinic cell carcinomas and in two of five adenoid cystic carcinomas.
There was a statistically significantly reduced expression of cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein in malignant parotid gland tumours, compared with benign parotid gland tumours (p < 0.05). These results suggest that a low level of cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein expression in parotid gland tumours may be associated with malignancy.
The specific activities of α-amylase were measured for two sets of mutation accumulation lines, each set having originated from a different lethal-carrying second chromosome and SM1(Cy) chromosome and having been maintained by a balanced lethal system for about 300 generations. Significant variation was found to have accumulated among lines of both sets. Because of dysgenic crosses in the early generations of mutation accumulation, insertions or deletions of transposable elements in the Amy gene region were suspected of being the cause of this variation. In order to test this possibility, the structural changes in the 14 kb region of these chromosomes that includes the structural genes for α-amylase were investigated by restriction map analysis. We found that most part of the activity variation is due to replacements of a chromosomal region of SM1(Cy), including the structural genes for α-amylase, by the corresponding regions of the lethal chromosomes. One line also contained an insertion in this region but this line has an intermediate activity value. Thus, insertions of transposable elements into the Amy gene region were not found to be responsible for the new variation observed in α-amylase activity. If we remove those lines with structural changes from the analysis, the genetic variance of α-amylase specific activity among lines becomes non-significant in both sets of chromosomes.
Thermoelectric properties of a homologous series of Magnéli phase titanium oxides TinO2n-1 (n = 2, 3..) have been investigated. Dense polycrystalline specimens with nominal composition of TiO2-x (x = 0.10, 0.20) have been prepared by conventional hot-pressing. X-ray diffraction analysis has revealed that prepared specimens are slightly reduced during hot-pressing. Electrical conduction is of n-type for all prepared titanium oxides and electrical resistivity and absolute values of Seebeck coefficient decrease with increasing oxygen deficiency. The carrier concentration of Magnéli phase titanium oxide increases with increasing oxygen deficiency. Lattice thermal conductivity decreases with increasing oxygen deficiency by more than 60% at room temperature and 40% at 773K compared to TiO2, which can be due to the presence of dense planar defects. The largest thermoelectric figure of merit Z, 1.6×10-4 K-1 at 773K, was obtained in TiO1.90 hot pressed specimen.
In recent years, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to study functional activation of various areas of the brain. This is based on the assumption that an increase in the recorded oxygenated haemoglobin (HbO2) concentration represents an increase in blood flow, which in turn reflects neuronal activation. The aim of this preliminary study was to use NIRS to monitor the activity of the olfactory cortex, as mirrored by the haemodynamic response, when subjects were exposed to olfactory stimuli.
A NIRO 300 (Hamamatsu Photonics, Hamamatsu, Japan) device was used. The optodes were placed on the right forehead and right temporal, parietal and occipital regions. Changes in the concentration of HbO2 and deoxygenated haemoglobin during olfactory stimulation were monitored. Olfactory stimulation was performed with vanilla essence, strawberry essence and scatol.
During olfactory stimulation, cerebral HbO2 concentration increased over the frontal region. However, in the temporal, parietal and occipital regions, little or no HbO2 changes were recorded.
This study shows that human brain cortical activation following olfactory stimulation can be recorded by NIRS. This NIRS analysis may therefore provide the basis for future development of an objective olfactory test in humans.
A new configuration of a superdislocation in the γ′ phase of a fourth-generation single-crystal TMS-138 superalloy was found after creep rupture in a  tensile test at 1150 °C and 137 MPa. The segments of the superdislocation lie in four directions, i.e., , , , and , strictly on a (001) plane with a Burgers vector b = . This superdislocation is pure edge in character and does not dissociate into superpartials. Microstructural evidence shows that this kind of superdislocation is formed by combination of two interfacial dislocations with different Burgers vectors, i.e., 1/2 + 1/2 → .
The concentration and arrangement of Si vacancy in aluminum or phosphorus containing ReSi1.75 based silicides have been investigated. Both aluminum and phosphorus are substituted with silicon. In addition to the (001)C11b twins usually observed in binary ReSi1.75, planar defects are heterogeneously formed in both of the silicon substituted ternary alloys with small amount. By using the high resolution electron micrograph (HREM) technique, the planar defects are assigned as crystallographic shear (CS) planes lying on (109) C11b and (107) C11b in aluminum and phosphorus containing ReSi1.75, respectively. The CS vector in both ternary alloys is C11b. Since the concentration of vacancies in the ReSi1.75 structure is changed by the introduction of these crystallographic shear, ternary alloys with silicon substituted by aluminum and phosphorus contain more or less amount of vacancies than the binary alloy, respectively. This implies us that concentration of Si vacancies changes so as to retain the average number of valence electron. We can control the concentration of Si vacancy in the ReSi1.75 based alloys.
The Japanese quarantine system monitors incoming passengers to detect imported pathogens at international airports. At one airport, we found that 74% of 13315 travellers returning with diarrhoea had visited only one country before entering Japan. On the basis of our results, we hypothesized that the international distribution and potential source of bacterial strains could be inferred by analysing strains isolated from travellers returning to Japan. In order to demonstrate the potential for this system, we randomly selected five Shigella sonnei strains and examined their restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns. One set of strains appeared to be closely related, while three sets, isolated from travellers who visited different countries were possibly related. These results suggest that international distributions and potential sources of S. sonnei may be inferred by monitoring isolates from passengers arriving at a Japanese quarantine station.
Characterization by reciprocal space mapping of x-ray diffraction (XRD) intensity was carried out for epitaxial layers of GaN-based laser structures on two GaN substrates: GaN substrate and GaN template on sapphire substrate. The difference between these two substrates was shown clearly. The distribution of XRD intensity of the epitaxial layers on GaN substrate was smaller than that of the epitaxial layers on GaN template on sapphire substrate. In the lasers with the epitaxial structure on GaN substrate, the light output power was as high as 200 mW under continuous-wave operation at room temperature. Excellent noise characteristics with relative intensity noise of -132 dB/Hz were also obtained at a low light output power of 3 mW without any high-frequency modulation. These results support that GaN substrates are promising for realizing GaN-based lasers with high performance.
Point defect properties have been studied for B2-type Co1-cFec alloys (0.4 ≤ c ≤ 0.6 ) by X-ray diffraction and density measurements. The lattice constant increases with increase in composition c and indicates a distinct change in the slope beyond c = 0.5. Further, it shows a decrease with increase in quenching temperature. The obtained vacancy concentration is very low for any composition and temperature concerned. Thus, it can be concluded that defect type in B2 CoFe is an antisite atom. The change in the lattice constant with quenching temperature can be related to the long-range order (LRO): it is well approximated by a linear form with respect to square of the LRO parameter. CoFe alloys in both B2 and higher temperature A2 phase regions show ferromagnetism. Observed results are discussed taking a correlation between the defect structure and the magnetic behavior into account.
A single crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+8 which has columnar defects in its inside are observed by Lorentz microscopy using the newly developed 1-MV field emission electron microscope at the first time. The superconducting vortices are observed with higher contrast than ever. Simultaneous observation of vortices and columnar defect is succeeded in real time.